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The first hormonal pill was approved in the 60s of the twentieth century. Since that time, oral contraception has been used worldwide by dozens of women due to its high availability, as well as relative ease and safety of taking. The main side effects of oral contraception include elevated risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Estrogens increase the probability of VTE development, depending on the dose in medication, and third-generation progestins increase the risk of VTE development more than older-generation progestins. Also, the coexistence of hereditary thrombophilia increases the risk of VTE development in women using oral contraceptives. Other side effects include changes in the carbohydrate and lipid economy. Progestins in oral contraceptives decrease HDL cholesterol levels but increase LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. Additionally, estrogens are a recognized mitogenic factor for the epithelium of the mammary gland, acting proliferative on the glandular tissue and in the same way influence on the increased risk of breast cancer development. Patients sometimes complain about some subjective side symptoms such as headache, mood changes, nausea, back pain, breast pain and swelling, as well as decreased libido. Some patients discontinue oral contraception due to fear of side effects or temporary ailments before consulting their doctor, what may result in unintended pregnancy. The aim of the following paper was to present most frequent side effects of oral contraception, ways of their monitoring and diagnosis. © Polskie Towarzystwo Ginekologiczne.

Bylka W.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960) | Year: 2012

Herbal medicines have been used in cough due to their antitussive and expectorant activity. Antitussives act either centrally on the cough center of the brain or peripherally on the cough receptors in the respiratory passages. The antitussive effect of many herbs results from the content of mucilage, which exerts protective and demulcent activity. The activity of expectorant herbs results primarily from their influence on the gastric mucose (saponins and ipec alkaloids). This proves reflex stimulation which leads to an increase in the secretion of bronchial glands. Volatile-oil type expectorant herbs exert a direct stimulatory effect on the bronchial glands by means of local irritation with antibacterial activity. In colds and flu, herbs containing volatile oil can be used; also, volatile oils are ingredients of syrups and liquids as well as external phytomedicines in the form of liniments, ointments, and inhalations. The paper shows the herbs and phytomedicines present on the Polish market used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases.

Markowska A.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Current Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2013

Ovarian tumors develop in 2.3-8.8% of pregnant women. Most of them are benign cysts which vanish spontaneously after the 9th or 10 th week of gestation. Ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful diagnostic tools. Computed tomography, however, is contraindicated. The most common benign lesions are teratomas and cystadenomas. Malignant tumors account for 2.15-13% of all ovarian tumors in pregnant patients. Germ cell tumors, followed by borderline tumors and ovarian carcinomas constitute the most common ones. The management in the case of germ cell and borderline tumors involves unilateral adnexectomy and in invasive ovarian carcinomas, the treatment is individualized. In stage 1A G1, the management is similar to the one in borderline tumors and restaging after the delivery may be performed. Additionally, in early stages of carcinoma (stage IA G2 and G3, IB, IC as well as IIA), lymphadenectomy and platinum-based chemotherapy are recommended. In advanced stages, there are numerous possibilities of treatment including radical surgery with termination of pregnancy before the 20 th-24th weeks of gestation and adjuvant therapy. Another option is the implementation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy during pregnancy and performance of cytoreduction following the delivery. At the mother's request, delaying the treatment until after the delivery may be considered. Chemical treatment during pregnancy does not exert negative effects on the fetus provided that it is applied in the second or third trimesters. One of its rare complications is intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The survival of patients with ovarian carcinomas diagnosed during pregnancy is not different than in the case of women diagnosed without being pregnant. © Curr. Gynecol. Oncol. 2013.

Cudak E.K.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Anestezjologia intensywna terapia | Year: 2010

The cost of nursing in a modern hospital can take up to 50% of the total budget. Therefore, it is very important to use objective tools for assessment of the nursing workload and adjust staff requirements accordingly. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nursing workload using the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) in intensive care units. This prospective analysis of nursing care of 314 adult patients was performed simultaneously in five intensive care units in Poland. NAS was used for the evaluation of nursing workload and the APACHE II score was used for assessment of the severity of cases. The APACHE score was calculated during the first 24 hours of ICU stay, while the NAS was recorded over an entire stay. The average age of the patients was 58.4 +/- 16.6 years. The length of stay was 8.7 +/- 11.4 days. The distribution between surgical (56%) and non-surgical cases (44%) was almost equal. Mortality was 21%. The median APACHE II score was 20 (1-42) and the NAS score 84.4%. There was no correlation between patients' clinical condition and nursing workload (p > 0.05), and the workload in surgical and non-surgical patients. The NAS score correlated well with the length of stay (p < 0.05). The study showed that ICU nurses spend 84.4% of their working time by the patient's bed. The optimal ICU nurse: patient ratio was estimated to be 1:1.2.

Nowak-Markwitz E.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu | Marek S.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Ginekologia Polska | Year: 2012

Ovarian cancers (OC) belong to a heterogeneous group of pathologies and are traditionally classified with regard to histological type and degree of differentiation. OC was hypothesized to originate from ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) and inclusion cysts epithelium (IC). Unfortunately, this theory was never supported by any clinical or molecular evidence linking carcinogenesis with OSE and was refuted. OC subtypes demonstrate morphologic features that resemble Müllerian duct-derived epithelia of the genital tract. Investigations of the HOX gene family, Müllerian epithelial differentiation markers, confirmed the HOX genes expression in many subtypes of OC but not in OSE. The first step towards connecting OC origin with other than OSE genital tract structures were epidemiological observations indicating a minor OC risk after tubal ligation in women with the BRCA mutation. The first in situ carcinoma was found in the Fallopian tube fimbriae. Further research confirmed the same mechanism in sporadic OC. Endometriosis and endometrium cells may be a highly probable place of endometrioid OC initiation. Mucinous types share common futures with gastrointestinal tract cancers and there one needs to search for their precursors. Clear cell carcinoma may arise from glandular epithelium of endocervix or from endometrioid foci. The new classification of OC was proposed in 2004, suggesting to divide all OC into two types: I and II. Type II includes serous and endometrioid G3 subtypes, carcinosarcomas and undifferentiated OC. They are responsible for 75% of OC morbidity, identified usually in FIGO stages III or IV, have poor prognosis and relapse early. The remaining hystiotypes, with better prognosis and earlier FIGO stages at time of diagnosis, were classified as type I. Serous and endometrioid poorly differentiated ovarian cancers demonstrate mutation in TP53 gene (type II) and highly differentiated ones, generally, in BRAS and KRAS genes (type I). The differences in molecular pathways also confirm different patterns of carcinogenesis of both OC types. Modern approach to OC histogenesis and origin emphasizes the necessity to verify OC screening, detection and treatment methods. © Polskie Towarzystwo Ginekologiczne.

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