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Nowak-Markwitz E.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu | Marek S.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Ginekologia Polska | Year: 2012

Ovarian cancers (OC) belong to a heterogeneous group of pathologies and are traditionally classified with regard to histological type and degree of differentiation. OC was hypothesized to originate from ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) and inclusion cysts epithelium (IC). Unfortunately, this theory was never supported by any clinical or molecular evidence linking carcinogenesis with OSE and was refuted. OC subtypes demonstrate morphologic features that resemble Müllerian duct-derived epithelia of the genital tract. Investigations of the HOX gene family, Müllerian epithelial differentiation markers, confirmed the HOX genes expression in many subtypes of OC but not in OSE. The first step towards connecting OC origin with other than OSE genital tract structures were epidemiological observations indicating a minor OC risk after tubal ligation in women with the BRCA mutation. The first in situ carcinoma was found in the Fallopian tube fimbriae. Further research confirmed the same mechanism in sporadic OC. Endometriosis and endometrium cells may be a highly probable place of endometrioid OC initiation. Mucinous types share common futures with gastrointestinal tract cancers and there one needs to search for their precursors. Clear cell carcinoma may arise from glandular epithelium of endocervix or from endometrioid foci. The new classification of OC was proposed in 2004, suggesting to divide all OC into two types: I and II. Type II includes serous and endometrioid G3 subtypes, carcinosarcomas and undifferentiated OC. They are responsible for 75% of OC morbidity, identified usually in FIGO stages III or IV, have poor prognosis and relapse early. The remaining hystiotypes, with better prognosis and earlier FIGO stages at time of diagnosis, were classified as type I. Serous and endometrioid poorly differentiated ovarian cancers demonstrate mutation in TP53 gene (type II) and highly differentiated ones, generally, in BRAS and KRAS genes (type I). The differences in molecular pathways also confirm different patterns of carcinogenesis of both OC types. Modern approach to OC histogenesis and origin emphasizes the necessity to verify OC screening, detection and treatment methods. © Polskie Towarzystwo Ginekologiczne.


Cudak E.K.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Anestezjologia intensywna terapia | Year: 2010

The cost of nursing in a modern hospital can take up to 50% of the total budget. Therefore, it is very important to use objective tools for assessment of the nursing workload and adjust staff requirements accordingly. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nursing workload using the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) in intensive care units. This prospective analysis of nursing care of 314 adult patients was performed simultaneously in five intensive care units in Poland. NAS was used for the evaluation of nursing workload and the APACHE II score was used for assessment of the severity of cases. The APACHE score was calculated during the first 24 hours of ICU stay, while the NAS was recorded over an entire stay. The average age of the patients was 58.4 +/- 16.6 years. The length of stay was 8.7 +/- 11.4 days. The distribution between surgical (56%) and non-surgical cases (44%) was almost equal. Mortality was 21%. The median APACHE II score was 20 (1-42) and the NAS score 84.4%. There was no correlation between patients' clinical condition and nursing workload (p > 0.05), and the workload in surgical and non-surgical patients. The NAS score correlated well with the length of stay (p < 0.05). The study showed that ICU nurses spend 84.4% of their working time by the patient's bed. The optimal ICU nurse: patient ratio was estimated to be 1:1.2.


Lojko D.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu | Suwalska A.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu | Rybakowski J.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Psychiatria Polska | Year: 2014

In 2013, a version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), having number 5, was published. The DSM is a textbook which aims to present diagnostic criteria for each psychiatric disorder recognized by the U.S. healthcare system. The DSM-5 comprises the most updated diagnostic criteria of psychiatric disorders as well as their description, and provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about the patients. Diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5 have been popular all over the world, including countries where the ICD-10 classification is obligatory, and are widely used for clinical and neurobiological research in psychiatry. In this article, two chapters of the DSM-5 pertained to mood (affective) disorders are presented, such as "Bipolar and related disorders" and "Depressive disorders" replacing the chapter titled "Mood disorders" in the previous version of DSM-IV. The aim of this article is to discuss a structure of new classification, to point out differences compared with previous version (DSM-IV). New diagnostic categories, such as e.g. disruptive mood dysregulation disorder or premenstrual dysphoric disorder were depicted as well as some elements of dimensional approach to mood disorders were presented.


The first hormonal pill was approved in the 60s of the twentieth century. Since that time, oral contraception has been used worldwide by dozens of women due to its high availability, as well as relative ease and safety of taking. The main side effects of oral contraception include elevated risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Estrogens increase the probability of VTE development, depending on the dose in medication, and third-generation progestins increase the risk of VTE development more than older-generation progestins. Also, the coexistence of hereditary thrombophilia increases the risk of VTE development in women using oral contraceptives. Other side effects include changes in the carbohydrate and lipid economy. Progestins in oral contraceptives decrease HDL cholesterol levels but increase LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. Additionally, estrogens are a recognized mitogenic factor for the epithelium of the mammary gland, acting proliferative on the glandular tissue and in the same way influence on the increased risk of breast cancer development. Patients sometimes complain about some subjective side symptoms such as headache, mood changes, nausea, back pain, breast pain and swelling, as well as decreased libido. Some patients discontinue oral contraception due to fear of side effects or temporary ailments before consulting their doctor, what may result in unintended pregnancy. The aim of the following paper was to present most frequent side effects of oral contraception, ways of their monitoring and diagnosis. © Polskie Towarzystwo Ginekologiczne.


Ozegowska K.E.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu | Pawelczyk L.A.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Ginekologia Polska | Year: 2015

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is manifested by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound, oligomenorrhoea and anovulation. PCOS patients are more vulnerable to metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, obesity, endothelium dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and activation of proinflammatory factors. This association shows that PCOS might be an ovarian manifestation of a metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance is also strongly correlated with reproductive failure. Approximately 100 factors, secreted in adipose tissue, are responsible for its regulation. Adipocytokines have been found to play an important role in regulating insulin sensitivity. Abnormal levels of adipokines are detected in patients with insulin resistance. Studies indicate that these factors, and their different activity in PCOS women, may affect changes observed in their metabolism and, especially, may participate in the development of insulin resistance. There are several adipokines whose role has been thoroughly investigated and many that we still know very little about, for example apelin and visfatin. Counseling PCOS patients about the possibility of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases should be a standard of care. © Polskie Towarzystwo Ginekologiczne.


Seremak-Mrozikiewicz A.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu | Barlik M.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu | Drews D.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Ginekologia Polska | Year: 2014

Long-term adaptive changes occurring in a developing fetus in response to unstable in utero environmental conditions, which appear at a particular time (critical window), are called intrauterine or fetal programming. These adaptive changes are beneficial during the intrauterine period because they adapt the fetus to current needs, but may turn out to be harmful in the end and lead to development of chronic diseases in adult life. Fetal programming means the structural and functional changing of an organism, metabolism and function of some cells, tissues and systems, that occur even despite intrauterine limitations. Events of fetal life influence the determination of physiological patterns which may manifest as disease processes in the adulthood (Barker's hypothesis). Genetic and environmental factors (poor diet in pregnancy, chronic intrauterine fetal hypoxia, the effects of xenobiotics and drugs, as well as hormonal disorders) influence the phenotype of a newborn and are involved in the intrauterine programming process. The effects of fetal programming may be passed along to the next generations via not fully understood pathways, which probably include epigenetic mechanisms. Most of the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear and need to be elucidated ©Polskie Towarzystwo Ginekologiczne.


Bylka W.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960) | Year: 2012

Herbal medicines have been used in cough due to their antitussive and expectorant activity. Antitussives act either centrally on the cough center of the brain or peripherally on the cough receptors in the respiratory passages. The antitussive effect of many herbs results from the content of mucilage, which exerts protective and demulcent activity. The activity of expectorant herbs results primarily from their influence on the gastric mucose (saponins and ipec alkaloids). This proves reflex stimulation which leads to an increase in the secretion of bronchial glands. Volatile-oil type expectorant herbs exert a direct stimulatory effect on the bronchial glands by means of local irritation with antibacterial activity. In colds and flu, herbs containing volatile oil can be used; also, volatile oils are ingredients of syrups and liquids as well as external phytomedicines in the form of liniments, ointments, and inhalations. The paper shows the herbs and phytomedicines present on the Polish market used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases.


Ferensztajn E.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu | Remlinger-Molenda A.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu | Rybakowski J.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Psychiatria Polska | Year: 2014

In this article, a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness (recurrent depression) is presented. In respective subchapters, three most important aspects of this issue have been discussed: 1) staging of unipolar affective illness; 2) staging of treatment-resistant depression; and 3) conversion of unipolar into bipolar affective illness. The evidence for so called neuroprogression of the illness, accumulated in recent years, has allowed for a classification of staging based on a concept of allostasis and allostatic load. In the course of illness, changes in neuroendocrine system (mainly hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis), immunological system, mechanisms of oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors as well as structural and functional changes of the brain occur. In their paper of 2007, Fava and Tossani elaborated a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness presenting a continuum model of five consecutive stages with specific clinical features. In the present paper, a concept of treatment-resistant depression and staging of treatment-resistance is presented in the context of several models. An important determinant of treatment-resistant depression is so called subthreshold bipolarity which is connected with worse efficacy of antidepressant drugs. In the course of illness, there is a possibility of changing diagnosis from recurrent depression into bipolar affective illness. The studies on this issue show that frequency of such diagnostic conversion is 1,5% of depressed patients per year.


The overall objective of the Polish guidelines for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism is to increase patient benefit and safety by appropriate prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism as well as proper management of the complications associated with antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy. These guidelines apply to adult trauma, cancer, surgical, and medical patients as well as those at increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Specific recommendations have been formulated for pregnant women, patients requiring surgery while receiving long-term oral anticoagulant treatment, and patients undergoing regional anesthesia and/or analgesia. We chose to update the existing Polish guidelines with the use of the most recent high-quality international guidelines that we identified and adjusted the final product to Polish cultural and organizational setting. We based our recommendations primarily on the 9th edition of the American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines on Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism, the 3rd edition of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Evidence-Based Guidelines on Regional Anesthesia in the Patient Receiving Antithrombotic or Thrombolytic Therapy, the ACOG practice bulletin on thromboembolism in pregnancy (Number 123), and Guidance from the Scientific and Standardisation Committee of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis on the Duration of Anticoagulant Therapy after a First Episode of Unprovoked Pulmonary Embolus or Deep Vein Thrombosis, as well as two other Polish practice guidelines on the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism and the management of patients treated with oral direct inhibitors of factor X or factor II. To make recommendations regarding specific management issues that had not been addressed in other guidelines, or whenever the panel members felt they needed additional information to reach the decision, we also consulted the authors of guidelines developed by other professional societies and organizations as well as additional sources of evidence. For each adapted recommendation, we explicitly assessed its relevance and applicability in the context of the healthcare system in Poland. When necessary, we explicitly stated the rationale for modification of the previously published recommendations and judgements about the values and preferences we assumed. The information regarding reimbursement of drugs mentioned in the recommendations was added in chapters 6-9 and 13 and approved by the National Health Fund. The final version of the practice guidelines was officially approved by the scientific societies and institutions listed at the beginning of the document.  


Markowska A.,University Medyczny w Poznaniu
Current Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2013

Ovarian tumors develop in 2.3-8.8% of pregnant women. Most of them are benign cysts which vanish spontaneously after the 9th or 10 th week of gestation. Ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful diagnostic tools. Computed tomography, however, is contraindicated. The most common benign lesions are teratomas and cystadenomas. Malignant tumors account for 2.15-13% of all ovarian tumors in pregnant patients. Germ cell tumors, followed by borderline tumors and ovarian carcinomas constitute the most common ones. The management in the case of germ cell and borderline tumors involves unilateral adnexectomy and in invasive ovarian carcinomas, the treatment is individualized. In stage 1A G1, the management is similar to the one in borderline tumors and restaging after the delivery may be performed. Additionally, in early stages of carcinoma (stage IA G2 and G3, IB, IC as well as IIA), lymphadenectomy and platinum-based chemotherapy are recommended. In advanced stages, there are numerous possibilities of treatment including radical surgery with termination of pregnancy before the 20 th-24th weeks of gestation and adjuvant therapy. Another option is the implementation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy during pregnancy and performance of cytoreduction following the delivery. At the mother's request, delaying the treatment until after the delivery may be considered. Chemical treatment during pregnancy does not exert negative effects on the fetus provided that it is applied in the second or third trimesters. One of its rare complications is intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The survival of patients with ovarian carcinomas diagnosed during pregnancy is not different than in the case of women diagnosed without being pregnant. © Curr. Gynecol. Oncol. 2013.

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