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Nanotechnology is a very promising technology with a potential that can revolutionise the pharmaceutical industry. One interesting nanostructure are carbon nanotubes whose application possibilities are restricted by their solubility. Their solubility can be improved by applying endo- and exohedral modifications. The paper offers a review of the hitherto applied methods of functionalisation permitting the use of carbon nanotubes for biomedical purposes. Source

Tobacco and its use was discovered by Christopher Columbus in parallel with the discovery of America. Soon after, tobacco became a known medicinal plant in Europe. Its harmful effects were gradually discovered, especially those of tobacco smoke, and now it is considered a toxic plant. Tobacco leaf has a monograph in German "Hagers Enzyklopädie derArzneistoffe und Drogen", which describes its old, already not valid, medicinal use and clearly shows the toxic effects. Epidemiological studies indicate about 50% lower incidence of Parkinson's disease in smokers than in non-smokers. In turn, studies of the brains of smokers using positron emission tomography showed significantly decreased level of monoamine oxidase B--an enzyme which degrades dopamine--the neurotransmitter which the significant insufficiency of about 80-85%, is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. From the tobacco leaves there were isolated MAO-B inhibitors--naphthoquinone--2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and diterpenoid -trans,trans-farnesol, which occur also in tobacco smoke. In the last decade many papers have appeared on the neuroprotective activity of nicotine, the best known component of tobacco. through the effect of this compound on specific nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs), which interacts with nigrostriatal dopaminergic system as well as the possibility of using nicotine for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, tobacco was also found to contain inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Tobacco cannot be considered a medicinal plant, but some compounds occurring in that plant may find therapeutic use. Source

Urbanska M.,University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego znaniu
Przegla̧d lekarski

Presently cigarette smoking is one of the most dangerous activities for health and human life. In tobacco smoke, nicotine and other dangerous substances have detrimental influence not only for smokers but for the "passive smokers" whom very often are children. Cigarette smoke causes unfavorable skin changes or intensifies course of many skin diseases including cancer. Tobacco smoke additionally quickens the natural process of skin aging. It has been observed that the skin of smoking addicts at the age of 40 years resembles skin of non-smoking 70 year old adults. Skin damage due to tobacco smoke is irreversible, where further damage can be avoided by stopping smoking. Present trends try to find ways to stop or at least delay changes caused by aging. Perhaps maybe it's first signs- wrinkles- more than the deadly consequences of smoking will be the most motivating reason for smokers to "kick the habit". Source

Pupek-Musialik D.,University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego znaniu
Chirurgia narzadów ruchu i ortopedia polska

In 1997 World Health Organization regarded obesity as an illness caused by modern civilization. Elevated values of BMI index over 30 kg/m2 increase the risk of movement organ diseases. Growing ailment pains in lumbar part of vertebral column and disfunction of its joints leads to severe disability. Many studies revealed, that BMI > 30 kg/m2 increased the risk of joints injuries up to 4-5 times. Most common cause of back pain and knee pains, amount obese patients, seems to be a degenerative disease. Finn studies prove correlation between visceral obesity index (waist/hip ratio) and intensification of pain in lower part of vertebral column. Women were suffering more often than men, 39.5% vs 31.2%. Amount causes of individual degeneration changes the most common is "overloaded mechanism". Nowadays, scientists claim, that subclinical inflammatory process might be connected with obesity. Fat tissue is a source of many adipocytokines. Such adipocytokines as leptin, resistin, adiponectin and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-18 and hsCRP modulate inflammatory process and lead to damage of joint cartilage. Other cytokine, like osteoprotegrin, exerts osteo-protection impact. The reduction of body mass index seems to be necessary as far as patients with joints and vertebrae bone illnesses are concerned. That aim might be achieved by excessive physical activity and proper diet. Physical training should be fitted individually to every patient. Static and endurance training are not recommended. Proper weight loss should be more less 1 kg per week, and general physical ability improves. Cooperation between obesitologists and orthopedists seems to be necessary. Source

Total hip replacement (THR) is at present an accepted treatment in patients with severe deformity of the hip caused by advanced ankylosing spondylitis. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the results of THR in patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis, operated from 1987 to 2007 at the Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Department of Poznan University of Medical Sciences. Material. Material included 26 patients, 2 females and 24 males, on whom 34 THR were performed, lateral approach was used in all cases. At the time of operation, the age of patients ranged from 27 to 77 years (mean 57). Follow-up ranged from 3 to 21 years (mean 10.5 years). The operative treatment was a multistage process (during one operation only one joint was replaced). Cemented totalhip arthroplasty was used during 16 of the THR, 17 of them were cementless and 1 as a hybrid. The patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, and at final examination. The clinical state was evaluated with Harris hip score and WOMAC scale. We based our radiological examination on Hip Society system. The average preoperative Harris score for the group of patients was 27.3, WOMAC score 78.5. After an average of 10 years follow-up all hips and knees were considered excellent, with average Harris score of 91.4, WOMAC Score of 5.0. All patients had increased function and decreased pain. The radiograms of all patients revealed that the acetabular and femoral components were correctly positioned with no radiographic evidence of loosening in the last examination. No ectopic ossification concentrations were found. Clinical and radiological evaluation of our material showed that total hip replacement in the treatment of severe deformity of the hip caused by advanced ankylosing spondylitis allows regaining good lower limb function, which helps the patients staying less dependant on the surrounding environment. Ectopic ossification is not the clinical problem during THR in patients who suffer from spondylytis deformans. Source

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