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Domaradzki J.,University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego
Psychiatria Polska | Year: 2016

Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe how Polish print news media frame relations between genetics and human behaviors and what images of behavioral genetics dominate in press discourse. Methods. A content and frame analysis of 72 print news articles about behavioral genetics published between 2000 and 2014 in four major Polish weekly magazines: "Polityka", "Wprost", "Newsweek" and "Przekrój" was conducted. Results. Twenty one different behaviors were mentioned in the sample and six major analytic frames were identified: essentialist, materialistic, deterministic, probabilistic, optimistic and pessimistic. The most common was the tendency to describe human behaviors in terms of genetic essentialism, reductionism and determinism, as almost one half of the articles was focused solely on genetic determinants of human behaviors and lacked any reference to polygenetic and/or environmental conditioning. Although most of the articles were balanced in tone, benefits were stressed more often than potential risks. Stories that confirmed existence of genetic determinants of human behavior were favored over those that did not. One third of the articles stressed the social or ethical consequences of the development of behavioral genetics. Conclusions. The complex and abstract character of genetic knowledge results in a simplistic portrayal of behavioral genetics in the press, which may lead to a misunderstood interpretation of the complicated interplay between behavior, genetics and environment by the public. Consequently, print news media contribute to geneticization of behaviors. It is important to improve the quality of science reporting on behavioral genetics and to educate researchers how to communicate with the media more effectively.

Czarnywojtek A.,University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego
Przegla̧d lekarski | Year: 2010

Cigarette smoking has multiple effects on the thyroid gland, which is associated with important clinical implications such as increased risk and severity of autoimmune thyroid disorders, especially Graves' ophthalmopathy. The influence of cigarette smoking is mainly associated with the pharmacological action of nicotine and also with toxins such as thiocyanate. The present review of relevant literature concentrates on the effect of smoking on the Graves' ophthalmopathy and other autoimmune thyroid disorders (such as Hashimoto's disease). The effect of passive smoking on children and the influence of smoking on the fetus is also shown. In contrast, the protective influence of cigarette smoke on thyroid cancer is also widely observed.

Wozniak A.,University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego
Przegla̧d lekarski | Year: 2012

According to epidemiological data head and neck cancers constitute for 12% of all malignancies in the world. It is estimated that a total of 400 000 cases of the mouth and throat and of 160 000 cases of laryngeal cancer, 300 000 people die each year. History of head and neck cancers developed and underwent many changes at the turn of the century. Treatment, pathogenesis and possessed state of knowledge on the subject has changed. Starting from the ancient times there were texts on how to treat and examine patients. The Edwin Smith and Ebers Papyrus are two of the oldest medical documents describing the treatment of cancer patients. Hippocrates was the first person who used the word "cancer" and probably he was the first who divided the tumors into benign and malignant. In a document known as the Doctrine of Hippocrates he described skin cancer and cancer treatments. Over the next centuries, medical science did not develop because of religious concerns about autopsy and surgical procedures. The 17th century is a period in which there were a lot of new information about how to treat such oral cancer. Cancer of the tongue was removed by cauterization, which in the 18th century was replaced by the use of surgical instruments. In the same age glossectomy has been accepted as the treatment of choice performed in the treatment of cancer. The 19th century brought a major breakthrough in the treatment of surgical, diagnostic, anesthetic techniques and understanding of the pathological mechanisms. Histological evaluation of tumors has become mandatory and standard practice in the assessment of cancer. Laryngectomy and neck lymph nodes removal has become commonplace. Modified Radical Neck Dissection (MRND), became popularized as another cancer treatment technique. Describing ways to treat cancer, radiotherapy can not be ignored - there are several new techniques such as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and hypofractionation currently used. Chemotherapy and the introduction of many new drugs have changed the outlook for patients suffering from cancer. Recently there are expectations about the targeted therapy, especially in medicaments blocking epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a cosmopolitan flagellate organism belonging to the most common intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and animals. Great genetic heterogeneity has been found within G. duodenalis, where only genotypes representing assemblages A and B have zoonotic potential. Fecal samples (447 specimens) obtained from 232 humans in West-central region of Poland were examined by microscopy and PCR. The total prevalence of Giardia in humans was 1.3%. DNA was extracted from three positive fecal samples and PCR products were obtained after amplification using the beta-giardin primers G7 and G759. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that G. duodenalis isolates from humans belonged to A and B genotypes. Moreover, three subgenotypes, including a cosmopolitan subgenotype A2 and two new subgenotypes A and B were detected.

Budzianowski J.,University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego
Przegla̧d lekarski | Year: 2012

Interleukins are cytokines of highly pleiotropic activity and they have high potential for application in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Trials of recombinant interleukin production in plants relate almost exclusively to tobacco, where through the transformation of the nuclear genome (agroinfection) monomeric (IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, IL-18), homodimeric (IL-10) and single-chain heterodimeric (IL-12) interleukins have been obtained. The expression of IL-10 as a homodimer in the chloroplast genome could not be reached. Expression of the given interleukin was obtained in the leaves, cell culture and culture of hairy roots of tobacco. Interleukins obtained in tobacco showed similar in vitro biological activity as commercial ILs produced mostly in E. coli. Glycosylated IL-13 obtained in tobacco was much more resistant to proteolytic digestion than commercial non-glycosylated IL-13; therefore in the case of sufficiently large production it could be suitable for oral administration in the treatment of type I diabetes.

One of the etiological factors of dental caries are improper eating habits, which also influence the nutritional state of the organism. This similarity tends to establish the relationship between the intensity of tooth decay, and body weight disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in 7 and 12-year-old children, depending on the nutritional status. The study included 225 children of both sex, age 7 (132) and 12 years (93) attending to randomly selected schools in Poznań. Dental examination was performed by dentists in schools in artificial light using mirrors and dental probe (criteria according to WHO 1997 ). Based on collected data, caries frequency and caries intensity were calculated (DMF-t -7 and 12-year-olds and dmf-t 7-year olds). Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight were made by school nurses in accordance with guidelines for the performance of screening tests for people of school age. A deficiency or excess body weight in surveyed children rated BMI (Body Mass Index), including percentile ranges for the population of children in Poznań. Assessment of dental caries in groups of pupils were formed due to nutritional status of the respondents i. e. normal-weight and underweight and overweight. Caries frequency in children of normal weight in the population of 7-year-olds was 82.2% and 53.2% of children aged 12 years. In the group of 7-year-old pupils with overweight and underweight was respectively, 95.0% and 90.9%, 84.2% and 50.0% in the older group. A statistically significant difference between the attendance of dental caries in a group of 12-year-old children with overweight and normal weight and its deficiency was show. The average value of dmf-t in 7-year-old children was 4.02, and the DMF-permanent dentition - 0.19 and the children with over- and underweight respectively dmf- 4.25 and 3,82 and DMF- 0.35 and 0,27. In population of 12-year olds caries DMF was - 1.62, and for children with overweight and underweight, respectively, 2.68 and 1.25. Approximately 66.7% of 12- year old children were classified as normal weight, 20.4% as overweight and 12,9% as underweight, in the 7- year olds respectively 76.5%, 15.2% and 8.3%. Statistically relevant difference between DMF-t values at examined children of both gender with normal weight and overweight were observed only in the group of 12 years old. The surveys revealed that with increase of body the weight prevalence of dental caries grows in the group of older children. The children with observed abnormal body weight status should be classified in the higher dental caries risk group.

Kulza M.,University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego
Przegla̧d lekarski | Year: 2012

The liver is the gland most vulnerable to the toxic effects of xenobiotics, as responsible for their metabolism. Significant impact on the functioning of this gland has a style of life: alcohol consumption, diet with high fats ingredients and prooxidative substances and synthetic drugs. Very improtant aspect in herbal medicaments is protective properties on parenchymal organ-damaging. Concomitant intake of plant extracts containing cytoprotective compounds, may increase the efficacy of treatment and reduce side effects. One of the plants of the hepatoprotective action is artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Artichoke with multiple therapeutic properties and practically no side effects is recommended not only in disorders of the liver, but also in the prevention of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia or dyspeptic disorders.

Dytfeld J.,University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego | Horst-Sikorska W.,University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego
Ginekologia Polska | Year: 2012

Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) - usually temporary - occurs during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnancy associated osteoporosis (PAO) is an uncommon disease of unknown etiology. We present a case of a 35-year old woman with PAO, manifesting initially at the end of the first pregnancy as back pain. It reappeared in the second pregnancy, four years later. X-ray revealed multilevel compression fractures of Th12, L1, L2. DEXA showed L2-L4 T-score: -3.3 SD, hip T-score: -2.09 SD. Laboratory findings were irrelevant. She was put on antiresorptive treatment, calcium and vitamin D. Although there has been an improvement in BMD, the patient is a definite candidate for vertebral kyphoplasty due to disabling pain. © Polskie Towarzystwo Ginekologiczne.

University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego | Date: 2013-03-28

The present invention relates to the new chemical compounds containing (Z)-1,2-diphenylethene moiety in the structures, particularly the new derivatives of cis-stilbene, the new derivatives of 4,5-diphenyl-1,3-oxazole, the new derivatives of 1-methyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. The invention relates also to the application of aforementioned compounds as a microtubule-interfering agents (MIAs). The new derivatives, because of their potential antimitotic and antiangio-genic activity, can be used as ingredients in the preparations used in the treatment of cancer.

University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego | Date: 2013-01-31

The invention relates to a novel class of quaternary ammonium salts containing tetra-hydro[1,3]oxazolo[2,3-b][1,3]oxazol-4-ium moiety in the structure, in particular the new derivatives of 4-methyltetrahydro[1,3]oxazolo[2,3-b][1,3]oxazol-4-ium, 4-(2-oxoethyl)tetrahydro[1,3]oxazolo[2,3-6][1,3]oxazol-4-ium, bis{4-methyltetrahydro[1,3]oxazoio[2,3-6][1,3]oxazol-4-ium}, bis{4-(2-oxoethyl)tetrahydro[1,3]oxazolo[2,3-b][1,3]oxazol-4-ium} and tris{4-methyltetrahydro[1,3]oxazolo[2,3-b][1,3]oxazol-4-ium} salts, process for the preparation of a novel class of quaternary ammonium salts and applications thereof.

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