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Łódź, Poland

This article reviews the most important aspects of antibiotic treatment failure in respiratory tract infection which may occur with empirical as well as under target antibiotic therapy. Potential risk factors leading or predisposing to treatment failure exist in hospital acquired infections which cover polymicrobial aetiology with high multidrug resistance bacteria, changed conditions of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters of antibiotics, bioavailability, drug interactions and inactivation. Microbial determinants of treatment failure includes bacterial physiology in laboratory cultures and inside the host, inadequqte drug choice, lack of knowledge of PK/PD parameters with insufficient antibiotic level in target tissue. Differences between microbial in vitro tests and clinical outcome can be caused by varied CFU concentration, growing phase, nutritional, pH and redox conditions. Many factors of treatment failure are focused on bacterial biofilm structure and phenomenon of small-colony variants (SCVs) which both display reduced susceptibility to antimicrobial agents protected by matrix feature, enhanced production of PIA and by slow multiplication of biofilm forming cells.


Nowinska K.,Katedra i Zaklad Histologii i Embriologii | Dziegiel P.,University Medyczny
Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej | Year: 2010

The MCM (minichromosome maintenance protein) protein family was identified for the first time in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The subgroup consists of MCM proteins 2-9, that possess the characteristic ATPase domain (MCM box). There are also MCM1 and MCM10, which are important in DNA replication, but they do not possess the specific MCM box. The main function of MCM proteins is cooperation with other factors in molecular mechanisms that form the replication fork and in regulation of DNA synthesis. MCM proteins form a ring-shaped complex, which is activated when other factors are bound. MCM 2-7 complex is one of the pre-replication factors. Association of MCM 2-7 complex is a crucial moment initiating the replication fork. MCM proteins play a role in maintaining genome integrity and prevent re-replication once per cell cycle. Proliferating cells have high levels of MCM, whereas they are not detected in quiescent, differentiated or senescent cells. They are also potential useful markers of cell proliferation. Recent studies suggested that MCMs are good markers of proliferation activity degree, because they are highly expressed in a variety of tumors. The aim of this work is to summarize current knowledge about the role of MCM proteins in DNA replication and potential diagnostic markers of proliferating cancer cells.


The market of dietary supplements develops extremely fast in the whole world, also in Poland. A great popularity is ascribed to preparations aiding slimming diet. The application of dietary supplements aimed at reducing body's weight is a result of trends connected with the popularity of a healthy lifestyle and the care about one's appearance. Dietary supplements produced on the basis of natural products frequently contain significant amounts of mineral compounds, including microelements indispensable for man (in strictly specified amounts), among others: nickel and chromium. The subject of the study was 16 chosen dietary supplements aiding slimming in which the levels of chromium and nickel were determined. The samples were mineralized "dry" at the temperature of 480 degrees C. The ashes were dissolved in 15%-aqueous solution of HCl (Suprapur, Merck). The levels of the investigated elements were determined in Pye Unicam SP192 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer: nickel - by the extraction method from the organic phase, chromium - directly from a mineralised substance. Determined levels of nickel ranged from 0.11 microg/g in Nivelazione-"kapsulki na noc" supplement to 3.35 microg/g in Teavera preparation, and of chromium from 0.12 microg/g (Adipobon mono) to 22.93 microg/g (Chitobon-preparation with the addition of chromium). The levels of nickel and chromium in the studied supplements were different and depended on the preparation content. The capsules of some preparations, e.g., those with the addition of organic chromium contained levels of chromium exceeding AI dose for this element.


The β isoform of glycogen synthase kinase 3 enzyme (GSK3β), which is found at particularly high concentrations in the central nervous system, is crucial for its proper development and functioning. The role of GSK3β in the pathogenesis of affective disorders, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, as well as its involvement in other neurological disorders and neurogenesis, is discussed. A hypothesis is proposed that inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β induced by non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors mediates the non-selective COX inhibitors' Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease risk-lowering effects. Throughout the review special attention is paid to the therapeutic potential of GSK3β inhibitors. Supplementary information on GSK3β cellular activity regulation, the place of GSK3β in the Wnt signalling pathway, the link between GSK3β and memory, neuroplasticity and circadian rhythms is provided.


Proper folate supplementation is required in order to ensure proper folate concentration in the organism, and consequently to prevent the development of numerous complications in general population and pregnant women. Metafolin (stable calcium salt of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate acid, L-5-MTHF) is the most active form of reduced folate circulating in plasma, which directly enters the metabolic process of folate. After administration metafolin shows optimum absorption, comparable or higher bioavailability as well as physiological activity when compared to folic acid. Metafolin supplementation is effective in decreasing plasma homocysteine, as well as increasing folate in plasma and erythrocytes, in pregnant and breastfeeding women or those who wish to conceive. In addition, metafolin administration omits the multistage process of reduction before entering the folate cell cycle, as well as a possible deficiency of activity of enzymes participating in the reduction of folate process in the intestine epithelium (DHFR and MTHFR enzymes). So far, no potential adverse and toxic effects of metafolin management have been reported. The published findings require confirmation in larger groups of patients and an additional analysis of the presence of particular genotypes of 677C>T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene. Analysis of the recent literature reposts suggests that metafolin could be an effective and safe alternative to folic acid supplementation and could effectively prevent complications in pregnancy and series birth defects in fetuses and newborns. © Polskie Towarzystwo Ginekologiczne.

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