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Steffens S.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Janssen M.,Saarland University | Roos F.C.,Mainz University Medical Center | Becker F.,Boxberg Center | And 15 more authors.
Human Pathology | Year: 2014

The prognostic value of the Fuhrman nuclear grading system has been questioned for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) because this subtype frequently displays nuclear and nucleolar pleomorphism. The present study reevaluates this grading system in a series of patients with nonsarcomatoid chRCC. We identified 176 patients (3.6%) with nonsarcomatoid chRCC in a total of 4897 patients who underwent surgery for renal cell carcinoma at 5 centers in Germany between 1990 and 2010. The mean follow-up was 51.1 months. The 3 groups (G1 versus G2 versus G3/4) were comparable in terms of age, sex, tumor diameter, and lymph node metastasis. They only differed significantly in tumor stage (P =.01) and the incidence of synchronous visceral metastasis (P =.04). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rates were 84.4% for G1 (n = 32), 84.3% for G2 (n = 108), and 74.1% for G3/4 tumors (n = 33) (P =.58). Accordingly, multivariate analysis including age, sex, tumor stage, and metastatic disease did not identify Fuhrman grading as an independent predictor of cancer-specific survival in patients with chRCC (P =.4). We were able to demonstrate in a large multicenter cohort that the Fuhrman grading system does not qualify as a prognostic tool in patients with chRCC. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Steffens S.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Janssen M.,Saarland University | Roos F.C.,Mainz University Medical Center | Becker F.,Saarland University | And 12 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Aim of the study: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is the second most common subtype of RCC after the conventional clear cell type (cRCC). However, its characteristics and prognosis have been less intensively investigated. The aim of our study was to examine the tumour characteristics and long-term prognosis of pRCC compared to clear cell RCC (cRCC). Methods: In total, 4941 evaluable patients were subjected to either radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing surgery for pRCC or cRCC at five centres in Germany (University Hospitals of Hannover, Homburg/Saar, Mainz, Ulm and Marburg) between 1990 and 2010. Results: pRCC (n = 565) and cRCC (n = 4376) patients were comparable with regard to mean age, clinical symptoms, tumour differentiation and regional lymph node metastases. Patients with pRCC had a significantly higher rate of organ confined tumours (pT1-2, N/M0; 74.9% versus 62.9%), less synchronic visceral metastases (9.6% versus 15.2%), and a higher 5-year CSS rate than those with cRCC (85.1% versus 76.9%). Multivariate analysis identified the papillary subtype as a significant positive prognostic factor in localised (HR, 0.45) but as a negative prognostic factor in metastatic tumour stages (HR, 1.37). Conclusion: pRCC can apparently be differentiated into two subgroups: an organ-confined/localised subgroup with a significantly better prognosis and an advanced/metastatic subgroup with a worse prognosis compared to cRCC. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Steffens S.,Hannover Medical School | Junker K.,Saarland University | Junker K.,Jena University Hospital | Roos F.C.,Mainz University Medical Center | And 13 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Aim of the study Modern diagnostic ultrasound and cross-sectional imaging has enabled the detection of increasing numbers of renal tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the tumour- and patient-specific characteristics and prognosis of small renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) after surgical resection. Methods The study included 2197 patients who underwent surgical resection of histologically confirmed RCC ≤4 cm between 1990 and 2011. Median (mean) follow-up was 56.2 (65.5) months. Results At the time of surgery, tumours were staged as pT ≥ 3a in 175 (8.0%) cases, 134 (6.2%) were poorly differentiated and 75 (3.5%) were metastasised. The larger the tumour size, the higher was the risk of presenting with stage pT ≥ 3a (p < 0.001), poor tumour differentiation (p = 0.004), microscopic vascular involvement (p = 0.001) and collecting system invasion (p = 0.03). The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was 93.8% for stage pT1a versus 79.4% for stage pT ≥ 3a (p < 0.001), and it was 93.7% for G1-2 versus 76.8% for G3-4 differentiation (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified age in years (hazard ratio (HR) 1.04, p < 0.001), metastatic disease (HR 12.5, p < 0.001), tumour differentiation (HR 2.8, p < 0.001) and non-clear cell histology (HR 0.51, p = 0.02) as independent prognosticators for CSS in patients with small RCC. Interestingly, the 5-year cancer-specific mortality rate for pT1a N/M0 patients was 5.8%. Conclusions This large multicenter study has clearly shown that, though most small RCC have a low pathological stage and a good prognosis, there is also a small but significant subgroup of these tumours that are already locally advanced or poorly differentiated. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Roos F.C.,Mainz University Medical Center | Steffens S.,Hannover Medical School | Junker K.,Saarland University | Junker K.,Jena University Hospital | And 16 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Partial nephrectomy (PN) preserves renal function and has become the standard approach for T1a renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, there is still an ongoing debate as to which patients will actually derive greater benefit from partial than from radical nephrectomy (RN). The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of the type of surgery on overall survival (OS) in patients with localized RCC.Methods: Renal surgery was performed in 4326 patients with localized RCC (pT ≤ 3a N/M0) at six German tertiary care centers from 1980 to 2010: RN in 2955 cases (68.3%), elective (ePN) in 1108 (25.6%), and imperative partial nephrectomy (iPN) in 263 (6.1%) cases. The median follow-up for all patients was 63 months. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were carried out to identify prognosticators for OS.Results: PN was performed significantly more often than RN in patients presenting with lower tumor stages, higher RCC differentiation, and non-clear cell histology. Accordingly, the calculated 5 (10)-year OS rates were 90.0 (74.6)% for ePN, 83.9 (57.5)% for iPN, and 81.2 (64.7)% for RN (p < 0.001). However, multivariate analysis including age, sex, tumor diameter and differentiation, histological subtype, and the year of surgery showed that ePN compared to RN still qualified as an independent factor for improved OS (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94, p = 0.008).Conclusion: Even allowing for the weaknesses of this retrospective analysis, our multicenter study indicates that in patients with localized RCC, PN appears to be associated with better OS than RN irrespective of age or tumor size. © 2014 Roos et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Steffens S.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Roos F.C.,Mainz University Medical Center | Janssen M.,Saarland University | Becker F.,Boxberg Center | And 14 more authors.
Virchows Archiv | Year: 2014

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) is the third most common subtype of RCC, after clear cell (ccRCC) and papillary RCC. Its lower incidence and frequent exclusion from clinical trials might be why chRCC characteristics have not been extensively studied. The aim of our study was to examine tumor characteristics and long-term prognosis of chRCC compared to ccRCC. We collected 4,210 evaluable patients subjected to surgery for chRCC (n = 176) or ccRCC (n = 4,034) at five centers in Germany (University Hospitals of Hannover, Homburg/Saar, Mainz, Ulm, and Marburg) between 1990 and 2010. Patients with chRCC were significantly younger (mean, 60.1 vs. 62.1 years) and tended to be more frequently female (43.8 vs. 36.5 %). Although Fuhrman grade and median tumor diameter were not significantly different, significantly fewer patients with chRCC than with ccRCC presented with high tumor stage or metastasis at diagnosis (18.5 vs. 43.8 %). Moreover, significantly more chRCC patients were treated with partial nephrectomy (41.5 vs. 26.2 %). Accordingly, 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were 83.2 % for chRCC against 75.8 % for ccRCC patients (p = 0.014, log rank). However, in multivariate analysis, chromophobe subtype was not confirmed as a significant positive prognostic factor for RCC (HR 0.88, 95 % CI 0.63–1.24; p = 0.48 Cox regression). This is one of the largest studies to date showing that chRCC is associated with a significantly lower risk of locally invasive tumor growth and metastatic disease than ccRCC. We conclude that the clinical behavior of chRCC is less aggressive than that of ccRCC, independent of Fuhrman grade or tumor size. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Bleiziffer O.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Hammon M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Arkudas A.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Taeger C.D.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 6 more authors.
BMC Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Background: Guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1) is a large GTPase which is actively secreted by endothelial cells. It is a marker and intracellular inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. We previously demonstrated that stable expression of GBP-1 in murine endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) induces their premature differentiation and decreases their migration capacity in vitro and in vivo. The goal of the present study was to assess the antiangiogenic capacity of EPC expressing GBP-1 (GBP-1-EPC) and their impact on blood vessel formation in an axially vascularized 3-D bioartificial construct in vivo.Results: Functional in vitro testing demonstrated a significant increase in VEGF secretion by GBP-1-EPC after induction of cell differentiation. Undifferentiated GBP-1-EPC, however, did not secrete increased levels of VEGF compared to undifferentiated control EPC expressing an empty vector (EV-EPC). In our In vivo experiments, we generated axially vascularized tissue-engineered 3-D constructs. The new vascular network arises from an arterio-venous loop (AVL) embedded in a fibrin matrix inside a separation chamber. Total surface area of the construct as calculated from cross sections was larger after transplantation of GBP-1-EPC compared to control EV-EPC. This indicated reduced formation of fibrovascular tissue and less resorption of fibrin matrix compared to constructs containing EV-EPC. Most notably, the ratio of blood vessel surface area over total construct surface area in construct cross sections was significantly reduced in the presence of GBP-1-EPC. This indicates a significant reduction of blood vessel density and thereby inhibition of blood vessel formation from the AVL constructs caused by GBP-1. In addition, GBP-1 expressed from EPC significantly reduced cell apoptosis compared to GBP-1-negative controls.Conclusion: Transgenic EPC expressing the proinflammatory antiangiogenic GTPase GBP-1 can reduce blood vessel density and inhibit apoptosis in a developing bioartificial vascular network and may become a new powerful tool to manipulate angiogenetic processes in tissue engineering and other pathological conditions such as tumour angiogenesis. © 2012 Bleiziffer et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Mainz University Medical Center, Erlangen University Medical Center, University of Marburg, Saarland University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) | Year: 2014

Modern diagnostic ultrasound and cross-sectional imaging has enabled the detection of increasing numbers of renal tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the tumour- and patient-specific characteristics and prognosis of small renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) after surgical resection.The study included 2197 patients who underwent surgical resection of histologically confirmed RCC 4 cm between 1990 and 2011. Median (mean) follow-up was 56.2 (65.5) months.At the time of surgery, tumours were staged as pT 3a in 175 (8.0%) cases, 134 (6.2%) were poorly differentiated and 75 (3.5%) were metastasised. The larger the tumour size, the higher was the risk of presenting with stage pT 3a (p<0.001), poor tumour differentiation (p = 0.004), microscopic vascular involvement (p = 0.001) and collecting system invasion (p = 0.03). The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was 93.8% for stage pT1a versus 79.4% for stage pT 3a (p<0.001), and it was 93.7% for G1-2 versus 76.8% for G3-4 differentiation (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified age in years (hazard ratio (HR) 1.04, p<0.001), metastatic disease (HR 12.5, p < 0.001), tumour differentiation (HR 2.8, p<0.001) and non-clear cell histology (HR 0.51, p = 0.02) as independent prognosticators for CSS in patients with small RCC. Interestingly, the 5-year cancer-specific mortality rate for pT1a N/M0 patients was 5.8%.This large multicenter study has clearly shown that, though most small RCC have a low pathological stage and a good prognosis, there is also a small but significant subgroup of these tumours that are already locally advanced or poorly differentiated.


PubMed | Mainz University Medical Center, Erlangen University Medical Center, University of Marburg, Saarland University and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human pathology | Year: 2014

The prognostic value of the Fuhrman nuclear grading system has been questioned for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) because this subtype frequently displays nuclear and nucleolar pleomorphism. The present study reevaluates this grading system in a series of patients with nonsarcomatoid chRCC. We identified 176 patients (3.6%) with nonsarcomatoid chRCC in a total of 4897 patients who underwent surgery for renal cell carcinoma at 5 centers in Germany between 1990 and 2010. The mean follow-up was 51.1 months. The 3 groups (G1 versus G2 versus G3/4) were comparable in terms of age, sex, tumor diameter, and lymph node metastasis. They only differed significantly in tumor stage (P = .01) and the incidence of synchronous visceral metastasis (P = .04). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rates were 84.4% for G1 (n = 32), 84.3% for G2 (n = 108), and 74.1% for G3/4 tumors (n = 33) (P = .58). Accordingly, multivariate analysis including age, sex, tumor stage, and metastatic disease did not identify Fuhrman grading as an independent predictor of cancer-specific survival in patients with chRCC (P = .4). We were able to demonstrate in a large multicenter cohort that the Fuhrman grading system does not qualify as a prognostic tool in patients with chRCC.

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