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Cochabamba, Bolivia

Oliveira I.,Barcelona International Health Research Center | Torrico F.,University Mayor Of San Simn | Muoz J.,Barcelona International Health Research Center | Gascon J.,Barcelona International Health Research Center
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy | Year: 2010

Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and is an endemic zoonosis in the American continent. Thanks to the successful implementation of national programs for reducing the vectorial infestation and the strict control of blood-borne transmission of Chagas disease, the relative importance of congenital transmission has recently increased. Nowadays, in areas without vectorial transmission, congenital transmission has become the main way by which the disease has spread. This article reviews current knowledge on Chagas disease, focusing on the congenital transmission route. The public health implications of the increasing number of T. cruzi-infected immigrants and congenital transmission in nonendemic areas is also analyzed. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source

Bustamante M.,University Mayor Of San Simn | Diaz M.,University Mayor Of San Simn | Espinoza J.,University Mayor Of San Simn | Parrado R.,University Mayor Of San Simn | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2012

Data on the distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bolivia is scarce. Sand flies from an area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis endemicity in the Isiboro-Secure National Park in the Department of Cochabamba were captured and identified to species. In total, 945 sand flies (789 females and 156 males) belonging to 15 species were collected from the four collection points in two study villages in 2007. With 549 (58.1%) specimens, Lutzomyia shawi was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) sp. (22.2%), Lutzomyia llanosmartinsi (8.3%), Lutzomyia antunesi (4.3%), and Lutzomyia olmeca (2.1%). Abundance and species composition varied between rainy and dry seasons, with 99.3% of all sand flies being collected outdoors. Because of species abundance and confirmed Leishmania infection in previous entomological collections, we believe Lu. shawi is the vector of L. (Viannia) braziliensis in Isiboro-Secure National Park. © 2012 Entomological Society of America. Source

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