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News Article | April 8, 2017

One of Bolivia’s leading social and environmental organisations has been plunged into crisis after being told it must clear out of its current premises storing millions of records and tens of thousands of books and other publications. The Centro de Documentación e Información Bolivia (CEDIB) runs one of the biggest and most important libraries in the country, but was told recently it had just two days to leave. The order came from the new rector of the state-run University Mayor de San Simon (UMSS), where CEDIB has been based since 1993. Here CEDIB’s director, Marco Gandarillas, in Cochabamba, tells the Guardian, via email, what has been going on: DH: What was your and your colleagues’ reaction to the rector saying you had two days to move out? MG: Indignation and astonishment. It’s unheard of. That a university rector - that is, the highest academic authority - wants to kick us out, when we are the best library and research centre in the university and city. DH: What were the reasons/justifications given? MG: We think the [real] reasons are political - the rector answers to the MAS [Movimiento al Socialismo, the government party/movement]. The justification given [by the rector] was that our agreement ended 10 years ago - something that is, of course, false because we continue serving the university community to this day. DH: When you say the real reasons are “political”, what do you mean by that? Can you explain more? MG: We are a human rights organisation that has been denouncing human rights violations by transnational companies - including Chinese ones. The rector has said that he needs, suddenly, our premises to install a Chinese institute. DH: I’m aware that, for example, CEDIB has denounced the operations of BGP Bolivia, ultimately a subsidiary of the giant China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), because I wrote an article about it last year. But can you give me some other examples of the kind of work that you think has led to this response? MG: Our government is encouraging massive investments by Chinese companies through loans made according to that country’s conditions. Over the last few months we have been revealing Chinese geopolitical strategy in the Bolivian Amazon, and this has had national and international repercussions. You need to understand that over the last few years we’ve been on the receiving end of public attacks, as well as a law that attempts to make dissidence with sectoral - in this case, foreign investment - and national policy illegal. We’re known for this role defending human rights and as a centre of critical research, and so the UMSS’s rector, aligned with the government, is trying to hurt us. He hasn’t given one single academic reason for trying to evict us - only that a Chinese institute must be installed here immediately. DH: Would you say that CEDIB is one of the most critical voices, in Bolivia, of government policy? MG: Effectively, we are the most influential organisation criticising extractivist policy in the country. Not only from the academic point of view, with reports and research, but also because of our work with those who are impacted, like the [indigenous] Tacana people in the Amazon, who are affected by seismic tests by a Chinese oil company [BGP Bolivia], which also puts other indigenous people, living in voluntary isolation, in danger of extinction. Together with the Tacana and CEJIS - another organisation defending indigenous peoples’ rights - we submitted a petition to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. This is how we have been trying to stop extractives from violating the rights of the most vulnerable. DH: What is most threatened right now? That’s to say, what are we talking about - one of the most important archives in the country? MG: What is threatened are the lives and integrity of all of us working in CEDIB and the documentary patrimony we’re responsible for. The threats have been direct - to violently clear us out. The UMSS’s rector has encouraged students aligned with him to threaten to occupy our space. DH: When you say the threats have been “direct” and the rector has encouraged the students. . . Can you give me an example? His exact words or some proof? MG: On Wednesday he said on TV that he wouldn’t be responsible if students took over CEDIB. That afternoon students connected to the rector issued a statement calling for CEDIB to be taken over, and in the evening and the following day student leaders went to the media calling for the same thing. This would be, of course, violent and illegal. It chimes with the direct threats made by Irving Avendaño, a legal advisor to the UMSS, against CEDIB personnel that he would hold us in our offices. The rector said that too. DH: What other attacks have you experienced? An attempt to close you completely? MG: In 2015 they [the vice-president] publicly attacked us, discrediting our research and claiming we were foreign agents. There was an attempt to expel us from the country. Following that, a law tried to make us and our objectives illegal, so that we would fall into line with sectoral and national policies. DH: “Foreign agents.” For whom - the US? MG: From the empire, it was said. Of course, they were never able to prove anything and the attempt to discredit our research was fruitless. Our good reputation is based on decades of an impeccable trajectory. DH: When you say “empire”, do you mean the US? DH: I see that over 200 individuals and institutions have written, in your defence, to the UMSS rector and others, among other shows of support. How would you describe the support you have received? MG: Immense and very moving. Hundreds of academics, human rights organisations, allies and friends of CEDIB have requested that we’re not forcibly evicted and a place to store our library and records can be found. This solidarity is very important. DH: Tell us a little about what you have. How many records and books? Why is it such a rich, unique collection? MG: More than 11 million physical records and three million digital of everything that has been published in Bolivia’s written press over the last 50 years. In addition, we also have a library of about 77,000 books and a collection of all the laws ever published since the country’s foundation. It’s a unique resource. DH: Who uses it? Students, researchers from other countries? MG: Researchers, students and a very large number of social organisations. Also, it’s a trove of historical evidence to which members of the general public can turn to if they need to know things involving them, particularly those concerning human rights. For example, using a CEDIB dossier, victims of the dictatorships were able to back-up their demands for reparation from the state. DH: Initially the rector gave you 48 hours, right? But then that was extended - until when? MG: Formally - that’s to say, in a letter signed by a notary - he gave us, on 21 March, 48 hours. Then, after our response, he said it should be immediately, or he would proceed to evict us with the “help of the security forces.” DH: So what is the next step for you? I understand you now want to leave the UMSS, after all that has happened. So are you asking for more time? MG: The threats are very serious. We’re going to protect personnel and the archive. We’ll leave as soon as possible. The archive is huge. We’re requesting help to cover the enormous costs and starting a campaign with volunteers to help us. We have a lot of people getting organised for this. We’re urging the university authorities to drop their hostile actions and calls to violence, and requesting that other authorities ensure that this is what happens. DH: It sounds like you think that, at any moment, you could be invaded. Is it like that? MG: Yes, the threats are direct. DH: My final question. Do you have any idea where you might move to? MG: Yes, we do.

Balboa E.,University of Santiago de Chile | Castro J.,University of Santiago de Chile | Pinochet M.-J.,University of Santiago de Chile | Cancino G.I.,University of Santiago de Chile | And 10 more authors.
Redox Biology | Year: 2017

MLN64 is a late endosomal cholesterol-binding membrane protein that has been implicated in cholesterol transport from endosomal membranes to the plasma membrane and/or mitochondria, in toxin-induced resistance © 2017 The Authors

PubMed | University Mayor, Family Health Center, University of the Frontier, Finis Terrae University and University of Concepción
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutricion hospitalaria | Year: 2015

there is a lack of studies concerning hydration status before training in professional soccer describe hydration status before regular training practices in professional soccer players.a total of 156 male soccer players (age 25.4 5.2 y) from six professional Chilean clubs were included. No hydration or food intake recommendations were made before experiment, with the aim to assess hydration status under athletes regular real conditions. Body mass, height and urine specific gravity (USG) measurements were performed before training practices.98% of athletes showed dehydration (between moderate and severe) before regular training practices.dehydration is the most prevalent hydration status in professional Chilean soccer players before training, which may negatively affect athletes performance and may increase their risk of heat-related injuries.

Alburquenque C.,Laboratorio Clnica Dvila | Alburquenque C.,University Mayor | Bucarey S.A.,University of Chile | Neira-Carrillo A.,University of Chile | And 4 more authors.
Medical Mycology | Year: 2010

Chitosan is a natural polymer derived from chitin, a structural component of fungi, insects and shrimp, which exerts antimicrobial effects against bacteria and fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC), and the potential synergy between chitosan and a currently used antifungal drug, fluconazole. The in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chitosan and fluconazole against 105 clinical Candida isolates were measured by the broth microdilution method. LMWC exhibited a significant antifungal activity, inhibiting over 89.9% of the clinical isolates examined (68.6% of which was completely inhibited). The species included several fluconazole-resistant strains and less susceptible species such as C. glabrata, which was inhibited at a concentration of 4.8 mg/l LMWC. Although some strains were susceptible at pH 7.0, a greater antifungal activity of LMWC was observed at pH 4.0. There was no evidence of a synergistic effect of the combination of LMWC and fluconazole at pH 7.0. This is the first report in which the antifungal activity of LMWC was investigated with clinical Candida strains. The use of LMWC as an antifungal compound opens new therapeutic perspectives, as the low toxicity of LMWC in humans supports its use in new applications in an environment of pH 4.04.5, such as a topical agent for vulvovaginal candidiasis. © 2010 ISHAM.

Higuera C M.,University of Chile | Higuera C M.,University Mayor
Revista Chilena de Pediatria | Year: 2010

This paper presents some critical considerations regarding the growing adoption, by families, of alternative treatments and diets for the treatment of various disorders like autism in children. Research does not seem to support such practices, with the exception of the relationship between timesoral and vaccines, neurological and cardiac disorders. Issues to consider are pointed out in the need to opt for biological treatments, and the need for families and research teams to work together for the purpose of clarifying such procedures.

Montalvo M.T.,University of Tarapacá | Lobato I.,University of Tarapacá | Villanueva H.,University of Tarapacá | Borquez C.,University of Tarapacá | And 4 more authors.
Oncology Letters | Year: 2011

Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent female cancer worldwide. The majority of cases appear between the age of 30 and 50. Human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a central role in cervical cancer with 99.7% of HPV DNA identified in invasive cervical carcinomas. The prevalence of the HPV infection varies substantially among countries and according to age and lifestyle. HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection among males and females with a 70% higher incidence in sexually active females. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus in young university women by analyzing the correlation between Papanicolaou (PAP)-stained cervical tests and HPV detection by genotyping, as well as other risk factors. A total of 200 women aged between 18 and 25 years were enrolled in this study, which took place between September 2008 and May 2009 at the Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile. Results of the PAP smears showed that 97.5% of cells had normal characteristics, although an inflammatory pattern was noted. The prevalence of generic HPV infection was 3.5% when testing for HPV DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. An analysis of the genotype of infected female individuals indicated that high-risk HPV types, such as HPV 16 and 31 were present in 42.84 and 14.29% of females, respectively, and low-risk types such as HPV 6, in 14.29%. Only one sample with differentiated non-HPV (14.29%) was found. A 95% correlation between PAP-stained cervical tests and the method of testing for HPV was observed. Using the PCR method, it was found that of the 195 negative PAP smears, 5 were positive for HPV and two of the samples that were positive for ASC-US were also positive. A significantly increased (P<0.05) HPV infection risk was observed in the 18-21 age group with a higher prevalence (71.40%) when compared to the 22-25 age group (28.6%). A significant (P<0.042) difference was found between smoking and HPV infection. In conclusion, a significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between PAP and PCR methods for HPV testing in young university women. A significant correlation between smoking and HPV was detected, whereas no difference was noted with other parameters.

Castellon L.,Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna | Jerez D.,Major University | Mayorga J.,University Mayor | Fuenzalida C.,University Mayor
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2016

Mandibular tumors are rare in children. Most mandibular tumors in children are benign and locally aggressive, and some might require resection to prevent recurrence. Mandibular reconstruction after tumor resection in children has been less documented in published studies than mandibular reconstruction in adults. In children, age, the growth potential of the mandible, and the donor site are important factors that must be considered. The costochondral graft is an option for reconstruction of the resected portion of the mandible in children, especially when the resection involves the condyle, owing to its biologic and anatomic similarity to the temporomandibular joint and its regenerative and growth potential. The objective of the present case report is to present the unusual remodeling of a nonvascularized costochondral graft after mandibular resection in a pediatric patient. © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

Tapia Silva R.,Major University | Valenzuela Aranguiz V.,Major University | Zamorano Pino X.,Major University | Baena Aguila R.,University Mayor
Avances en Odontoestomatologia | Year: 2010

It's usual in dental practice, to build temporary crowns using self curing acrylics; this way, important amounts of heat are generated during the polimerization process, that may affect the biological preparations. The aim of this research is to know exactly how much heat is generated during polimerazation of some resins and evaluate the relationship between resin volume and temperature rising. This research used self curing resins of three different commercial brands ALIKE™, DURALAY y MARCHE. This brands was used in volumes of: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cc. A thermocouple was connected to a digital thermometer to register temperature variations inside the material. Our results showed that the reaction heat is directly proportional to the resin volume used. ALIKE raises the largest temperature for 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 cc. (40.6, 61.5, and 69.4°C respectly). For 1.5 cc. DURALAY showed the highest temperature at 86.0°C. Using ANOVA was found important differences in heat generation between MARCHE and ALIKE only for 0.25 cc group of samples (p=0.001).

PubMed | University Mayor, Andrés Bello University and University of Valparaíso
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutricion hospitalaria | Year: 2015

the aim of the study was to measure the heart rate recovery, blood lactate and movement acceleration during simulated taekwondo competition.twelve male subjects who belong to the national team, with at least five years of experience participated in this research. They performed a simulated combat to evaluate the following variables: (i) Blood lactate after one minute recovery between each round, (ii) Heart rate recovery (HRR) at thirty and sixty seconds in each minute rest between rounds, (iii) Peak acceleration (ACCp) in each round performed. The significance level was set at p < 005.the results showed no significant differences between winners and losers in the HRR at both, thirty and sixty seconds (p > 0.05), blood lactate (p > 0.05), peak acceleration (p > 0.05) and the average acceleration of combat (p = 0.18). There was no correlation between delta lactate and ACCp (r = 0.01; p = 0.93), delta lactate and HRR (r = -0.23; p = 0.18), and ACCp and HRR (r = 0.003; p = 0.98).these data suggest that studied variables would not be decisive in the simulated combat outcomes. Other factors such as technical-tactical or psychological variables could have a significant impact on athletic performance.

Beltran S.,University Mayor | Munoz-Bergmann C.A.,University Mayor | Elola-Lopez A.,University Mayor | Quintana J.,University Mayor | And 2 more authors.
Biological Research | Year: 2015

Background: Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium recognized as one of the most important foodborne pathogen. When ingested, V. parahaemolyticus causes a self-limiting illness (Vibriosis), characterized mainly by watery diarrhoea. Treatment is usually oral rehydration and/or antibiotics in complicated cases. Since 1996, the pathogenic and pandemic V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 serotype has spread worldwide, increasing the reported number of vibriosis cases. Thus, the design of new strategies for pathogen control and illness prevention is necessary. Lactobacillus sp. grouped Gram positive innocuous bacteria, part of normal intestinal microbiota and usually used as oral vaccines for several diarrheic diseases. Recombinants strains of Lactobacillus (RL) expressing pathogen antigens can be used as part of an anti-adhesion strategy where RL block the pathogen union sites in host cells. Thus, we aimed to express MAM-7 V. parahaemolyticus adhesion protein in Lactobacillus sp. to generate an RL that prevents pathogen colonization. Results: We cloned the MAM-7 gene from V. parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633 in Lactobacillus expression vectors. Recombinant strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus pSEC-MAM7 and L. rhamnosus pCWA-MAM7) adhered to CaCo-2 cells and competed with the pathogen. However, the L. rhamnosus wild type strain showed the best capacity to inhibit pathogen colonization in vitro. In addition, LDH-assay showed that recombinant strains were cytotoxic compared with the wild type isogenic strain. Conclusions: MAM-7 expression in lactobacilli reduces the intrinsic inhibitory capacity of L. rhamnosus against V. parahaemolyticus. © 2016 Beltran et al.

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