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Syazwani Mohd S.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu | Abdullah M.A.A.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu | Mat Amin K.A.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu | Mat Amin K.A.,University Malaysia TerengganuTerengganu
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2016

The uniformly cross-linked gellan gum hydrogel with sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT), organo-montmorillonite (CTAB-MMT) and Cloisite 15A were successfully prepared. The compression performances of the hydrogels were investigated. The results show that the GG hydrogels containing Cloisite 15A required smallest volume to achieve optimum compression tress, modulus and compression strain at 5% (w/w) compared to both Na-MMT and CTAB-MMT at 10% (w/w), respectively. The decrease in compression performances of gellan gum hydrogel at higher concentration containing those clays could be due to agglomeration process which created the entangled structure and bring up the brittleness of hydrogel properties. Overall, the presence of the clays significantly improved the mechanical performances of gellan gum hydrogels which beneficial to be used in tissue engineering. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Eldeen I.M.S.,University Malaysia TerengganuTerengganu | Mohamed H.,University Malaysia TerengganuTerengganu | Tan W.-N.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Siong J.Y.F.,University Malaysia TerengganuTerengganu | And 2 more authors.
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant | Year: 2016

This study aimed to investigate inhibitory effects of methanolic root extract of Xylocarpus mo/uccens/s against cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase and acetyl cholinesterase enzymes using in vitro models. Based on bioassay guided, the extract yielded two fractions A and B. The fractions were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The major component of fraction A was identified to be a-guaiene (98.54%). For fraction B (oil), 15 components were identified. The a-guaiene fraction showed strong activities against, AchE (IC50 21 μg mL-1), 5-lipox (IC50 27 μg mL-1,) and COX-1 (IC50 43 μg mL-1). It was weaker against COX-2 with IC50 of 84 μg mL-1. The oil possessed strong activities against 5-lipox and AchE with IC50 of 33 and 25 μg mL-1, respectively. However, it was weaker against both the COX enzymes (IC50 values ≥ 125 μg mL-1). Indomethacin, zileuton and galanthamine were used as positive controls. Concentration responses of the a-guaiene and oil against the enzymes were obtained using 5 concentrations (25-125 μg mL-1). Means were plotted in a graph with error bars representing 95% confidence intervals. For the a-guaiene, the inhibition response increased significantly with the increase of concentrations from 25-100 μg mL-1 against the four tested enzymes. Both the isolates showed remarkable dual inhibitory effects against 5-lipox and AchE enzymes. The results indicated the potential therapeutic effects of the plant in the treatment of inflammatory related ailments and cognitive disorders. Further study is needed to verify mechanism of actions and effective doses. The isolation and the biological activities observed contribute to the novelty of this study. © 2016 Ibrahim M.S. Eldeen et al.

Wan Maznah W.O.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Rahmah S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Rahmah S.,University Malaysia TerengganuTerengganu | Lim C.C.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Ecology | Year: 2016

The impact of tidal events on water quality and on the species composition and distribution of phytoplankton at three stations along Merbok river estuary, Malaysia were investigated. Bacillariophyta was the most dominant group, followed by, in decreasing order, Dinophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta, Cyanophyta and Cryptophyta. Spring tides had higher total cell number and richness but neap tides had higher diversity (except Station 2) and evenness of phytoplankton at all stations. Spring tides also led to higher salinity, conductivity, total suspended solids, nitrate and orthophosphate but lower pH, dissolved oxygen, transparency, chlorophyll-a and nitrite. No significant effects of tidal changes were observed on temperature, light intensity and ammonia. Oscillatoria spp. was dominant at Station 1, while Cylindrotheca spp. and Cyclotella spp. occurred at all stations and were dominant at Stations 2 and 3, respectively. Higher abundance of phytoplankton at Station 1 corresponded to significantly higher nitrate and ammonia but lower temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, conductivity, transparency, total suspended solids, nitrite and orthophosphate. Water quality varied according to the tidal events, which subsequently affected the composition and distribution of phytoplankton, thus reflecting the importance of biotic and abiotic parameters in understanding the overall ecological status of the Merbok river estuary. © International Society for Tropical Ecology.

Noordiyana M.N.,University Malaysia TerengganuTerengganu | Noraisyah R.,University Malaysia TerengganuTerengganu | Muhammad Z.S.B.,University Malaysia TerengganuTerengganu | Sharifah N.E.,University Malaysia TerengganuTerengganu
AACL Bioflux | Year: 2015

A study was conducted to investigate the inclusion methods and storage conditions of a commercial probiotic, containing Bacillus sp., in aquafeed. The commercial probiotic was included in aquafeed at 0.3% of diet dry weight via infusion (IB), infusion and evenly coated with molasses (IBM) and direct inclusion in pellet during pellet processing (PB). The diets were then stored in three different conditions: refrigerator (7°C), incubator (37°C) and room temperature (28°C). Between the three inclusion methods, IBM yields the highest growth of Bacillus sp. within the first 3 days of inclusion followed by IB and PB. Incubator showed to be the least favorable condition to store tested pellets. The differences were often significant with tested pellets stored in room temperature at day 7 of the experiment (p<0.05). Regardless of the storing condition, IBM diets yield the highest growth percentage of Bacillus sp. Based on the results, inclusion of the commercial probiotics, Bacillus sp. in pellet and further coated with molasses should be one of the considerable methods to be applied in aquafeed industry. In addition, under this experimental condition, pellets with Bacillus sp. could be stored in room temperature only, however prolonged storage warrants further study. © 2015, BIOFLUX SRL. All rights reserved.

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