Jamari S.S.,University of Sheffield |
Jamari S.S.,University Malaysia PahangKuantan |
Howse J.R.,University of Sheffield
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2012
Investigations of biomass conversion technologies and processes have been carried out intensively for the past two decades due to the reduction in the availability of landfill, stricter regulations, and increasing awareness of the problem. In this study we have concentrated on a wet-base biomass, in particular a waste stream from the commercial production of palm oil, empty fruit bunch (EFB). This has been converted through a hydrothermal carbonization process (HTC), where lignocellulosic material was converted in a low temperature and pressure environment to a product of increased carbon content offering the prospect of a material with a higher commercial value from an abundant waste stream. A purpose built pressure vessel was used in the presence of excess water at relatively low temperatures (180-220 °C) and saturated water pressures (1-22 MPa). The chemical and physical characteristics of the products were confirmed using elemental analysis, calorific value, SEM, FTIR and GCMS. The carbon value recorded a decrease of the O/C ratio of raw EFB = 0.85 to a HTC processed EFB of 0.55. The surface morphology obtained from SEM showed minimal structural modification of the material although small pores (10-13 μm) were seen on the surface of the HTC processed material. This suggests a processing route that preserves the existing carbohydrate structure whilst increasing its carbon content, which offers a route to complex carbon-rich materials based upon naturally grown carbohydrate materials. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Alam J.,Jessore University of Science and Technology |
Rahman W.,Jessore University of Science and Technology |
Rahman W.,University Malaysia PahangKuantan |
Mazid R.A.,Shahjalal University of Science and Technology |
Khan M.R.,University Malaysia PahangKuantan
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization | Year: 2015
The present article describes the synthesis and characterization of bi-component polymer systems based on gelatin films incorporated with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) monomer, developed for medical application. Gelatin films were prepared by the addition of HEMA of different concentrations (0–30 wt.%) and irradiated with various radiation doses (0–5 kGy). Tensile strength and tear strength of the irradiated gelatin films were found to increase with increasing HEMA up to 20 wt.% as well as radiation doses (1 kGy) as optimized. The maximum tensile and tear strengths of irradiated gelatin films with HEMA were found to be 79.1 MPa and 83.2 N/mm, respectively, at the optimum conditions, and these values were about double that of a reference film prepared without additives. In addition, morphological analysis was done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and showed how HEMA cemented and was covered with gelatin in the blend. Thermomechanical analysis was carried out to investigate the shifting of glass transition temperature (Tg) towards higher temperature due to HEMA addition, and the effect of this film was tested on the human body in order to determine whether it can be applied for medical purposes. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.