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Gajula C.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | Chandel A.K.,University of Sao Paulo | Konakalla R.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | Rudravaram R.,Osmania University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering | Year: 2011

Groundnut shell (GS), after separation of pod, is readily available as a potential feedstock for production of fermentable sugars. The substrate was delignified with sodium sulfite. The delignified substrate released 670 mg/g of sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis (50°C, 120 rpm, 50 hrs) using commercial cellulases (Dyadic® Xylanase PLUS, Dyadic Inc. USA). The groundnut shell enzymatic hydrolysate (45.6 g/L reducing sugars) was fermented for ethanol production with free and sorghum stalks immobilized cells of Pichia stipitis NCIM 3498 under submerged cultivation conditions. Immobilization of yeast cells on sorghum stalks were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A maximum of ethanol production (17.83 g/L, yield 0.44 g/g and 20.45 g/L, yield 0.47 g/g) was observed with free and immobilized cells of P. stipitis respectively in batch fermentation conditions. Recycling of immobilized cells showed a stable ethanol production (20.45 g/L, yield 0.47 g/g) up to 5 batches followed by a gradual downfall in subsequent cycles. Copyright © 2011 The Berkeley Electronic Press. All rights reserved. Source


Loh S.K.,University of Malaya | Faris W.F.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Hamdi M.,University Malaysia
Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics | Year: 2013

Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation has been used in modelling turbulent flow induced vibration of a curved tube with fixed supports. The vibration behaviour is studied through modal analysis. It is subsequently simulated to study the structural response induced by turbulent flow using LES. LES modelling has been reasonably used for the instantaneous pressure fluctuations it can generate on the tube wall. The high response can be caused by resonance effect between natural frequency and flow induced oscillation frequency. A flow induced response test has been performed. The comparison indicates the simulated response is 18.1% higher than the measured response. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Ng Y.G.,University Putra Malaysia | Tamrin S.B.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Yusoff I.S.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Hashim Z.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2015

This cross-sectional study intends to investigate the associations of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among foreign labourers on a socio-economic background, occupational exposure, social lifestyle, and postures adopted during harvesting tasks. A total of 446 male respondents (263 FFB cutters; 183 FFB collectors) were studied using an interview-assisted questionnaire. OWAS was used to determine the severity of awkward posture based on videos of harvesting tasks recorded for each respondent. Analysis found that increasingly educated respondents had higher risk of developing MSDs. Shorter daily work duration and longer resting duration appear to increase the risk of neck and shoulder disorders among harvesters, which may be attributable to organizational work design. Awkward posture was a particularly significant risk factor of MSDs among FFB collectors. Among the results of the study, occupational exposure, postures and certain socio-demographic backgrounds explained some, but not all, the risk factor of MSDs among harvesters. An in-depth investigation, preferably a longitudinal study investigating the dynamic of work activities and other risk factors, such as psychosocial risk factors, are recommended. © 2015, Institute of Agricultural Medicine. All rights reserved. Source


Abdullah Z.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu | Herawan T.,Ahmad Dahlan University | Noraziah A.,University Malaysia | Deris M.M.,University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies | Year: 2014

Frequent Pattern Tree (FP-Tree) is a compact data structure of representing frequent itemsets. The construction of FP-Tree is very important prior to frequent patterns mining. However, there have been too limited efforts specifically focused on constructing FP-Tree data structure beyond from its original database. In typical FP-Tree construction, besides the prior knowledge on support threshold, it also requires two database scans; first to build and sort the frequent patterns and second to build its prefix paths. Thus, twice database scanning is a key and major limitation in completing the construction of FP-Tree. Therefore, this paper suggests scalable Trie Transformation Technique Algorithm (T3A) to convert our predefined tree data structure, Disorder Support Trie Itemset (DOSTrieIT) into FP-Tree. Experiment results through two UCI benchmark datasets show that the proposed T3A generates FP-Tree up to 3 magnitudes faster than that the benchmarked FP-Growth. Copyright © 2014, IGI Global. Source


Masroor Ahmed M.,University Malaysia | Mohamad D.B.,University of Technology Malaysia
International Journal of Advances in Soft Computing and its Applications | Year: 2011

MR imaging modality has assumed an important position in studying the characteristics of soft tissues. Generally, images acquired by using this modality are found to be affected by noise, partial volume effect (PVE) and intensity non-uniformity (INU). The presence of these factors degrades the quality of the image. As a result of which, it becomes hard to precisely distinguish between different neighboring regions constituting an image. To address this problem, various methods have been proposed. To study the nature of various proposed state-of-the-art medical image segmentation methods, a review was carried out. This paper presents a brief summary of this review and attempts to analyze the strength and weaknesses of the proposed methods. The review concludes that unfortunately, none of the proposed methods has been able to independently address the problem of precise segmentation in its entirety. The paper strongly favors the use of some module for restoring pixel intensity value along with a segmentation method to produce efficient results. © ICSRS Publication. Source

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