University Mahallesi

Trabzon, Turkey

University Mahallesi

Trabzon, Turkey
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Balat M.,University Mahallesi | Kirtay E.,University Mahallesi
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2010

Hydrogen is considered in many countries to be an important alternative energy vector and a bridge to a sustainable energy future. The "hydrogen economy" is being promoted as one of the solutions of the world's energy problems. A hydrogen economy, the long-term goal of many nations, can potentially confer energy security, along with economic and environmental benefits. The Global Hydrogen Vision envisions hydrogen as a flexible, safe, affordable, domestic energy resource to be used in all sectors of the economy and all regions of the world. There are many technical and economic challenges to be overcome before the vision of a hydrogen economy becomes reality. Technical challenges in achieving a hydrogen economy include lowering the cost of hydrogen production, storage, delivery, and end use applications.


Balat M.,University Mahallesi
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2010

Energy security has recently gained importance for many commercial, industrial, and government facilities. Increasing the security of energy supply is essentially a strategy to reduce or hedge risks that derive from energy use, production and imports. The aim of this paper is to identify the main challenges concerning the security of energy supply in Turkey and to offer solutions. Rapid population growth and economic development in the country have resulted in rapid increases in energy demand in recent years. Turkey is currently heavily dependent on fossil fuels for energy consumption, with oil, natural gas, and coal being the predominant energy sources, accounting for a significant majority of the total energy consumption. Turkey has very limited domestic sources of oil and natural gas, thus it is almost entirely dependent on foreign sources. Due to continuously increase of energy consumption Turkey will be forced to import increasing amounts of fossil fuels. In spite of Turkey's heavy dependence on fossil fuels for energy demand, the country has a large potential for development of renewable resources of every type. In addition, Turkey has considerable thorium reserves as future nuclear fuel source. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Balat M.,University Mahallesi
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2010

This article reviews the applications and performance of microbial fuel cells as an alternative energy option. This technology involves using microorganisms, like bacteria, to oxidize biodegradable substrates as fuels through biological processes to produce electrons, which are then shuttled to an external electron acceptor (anode), and transferred to a cathode via copper wire, thus producing electricity. The performance of a microbial fuel cell can be influenced by several factors. The performance of a microbial fuel cell, as well as other fuel cells, is determined by the current, power density, and rate of fuel oxidation. Various factors can influence the rate of fuel oxidation, including the anodic catalytic activity, fuel diffusion, and the diffusion and consumption of electrons and protons. A microbial fuel cell generates electricity directly from electron donors through the microbial activity. Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells is based on the metabolic activity of living microorganisms. This fact requires that such fuel cell systems have to run under conditions predefined by the optimum growth and living conditions of the utilized microorganisms. Thus, microbial fuel cells are usually operated at ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, and at pH neutral or only slightly acidic conditions.


Demirbas M.F.,University Mahallesi
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and useful chemicals. Two algae samples (Cladophora fracta and Chlorella protothecoid) were studied for biofuel production. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil, biohydrogen and biomethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000liters per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. Algal oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. The effect of temperature on the yield of hydrogen from two algae (C. fracta and C. protothecoid) by pyrolysis and steam gasification were investigated in this study. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO2, CO, H2, and CH4.The yields of hydrogen by pyrolysis and steam gasification processes of the samples increased with temperature. The yields of gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 8.2% to 39.2% and 9.5% to 40.6% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 575 to 925K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 25.8% to 44.4% and 27.6% to 48.7% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 650 to 925K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 26.3% to 54.7% and 28.1% to 57.6% by volume, respectively, while the final gasification temperature was increased from 825 to 1225K. In general, algae gaseous products are higher quality than gaseous products from mosses. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Balat M.,University Mahallesi
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy | Year: 2011

Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source in Europe. Europe accounted for 69% of the total installed capacity and 70% of the annual market growth during 2005. The wind energy sector would have preferred a strengthening of existing, successful, legislation, and is concerned that a new legislative package could take years to adopt at a crucial time in the development of large scale wind power. The main objective of this study is to summarize the strategies and activities of the EU countries toward sustainable development goals. In addition, this paper describes the environmental and economic impacts of wind power technology in the EU. Copyright © Taylor &Francis Group, LLC.


Balat M.,University Mahallesi
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy | Year: 2010

The aim of the article is to investigate the present status and future prospects of wind energy and its potential to make significant contributions to the future energy needs of the European Union (EU). Wind energy has the potential to be the cheapest power source in Europe, but like any emerging technology, it faces significant barriers. At the same time, the EU wind manufacturing industry is booming with two-thirds of the world market share. In 2005, the EU has seen another record year with installations above 6,000 MW, thereby reaffirming its undisputed status as the world's biggest wind market. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Balat M.,University Mahallesi
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy | Year: 2010

Climate change is considered to be one of the greatest environmental threats. In response to this threat, developed countries agreed in Kyoto to legally binding targets, which will reduce their atmospheric emissions. Climate change, and avoiding its potential consequences, is addressed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and remains a high priority in the European Union. Despite considerable reductions in the United Kingdom and Germany, by 2000 many European Union countries had difficulty slowing and reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Systematic investments in technology development were found to yield substantial benefits in the long term by decreasing emissions reduction costs and by facilitating more ambitious reduction targets. The main objective of this article is to investigate greenhouse gas emissions, trends and reduction strategies in the European Union. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Balat M.,University Mahallesi
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy | Year: 2010

World primary energy demand is expected to continue to grow steadily, as it has over the last two decades. To meet this need, the world will have to make the best possible use of the various energy sources available, including coal, the most abundant and affordable of the fossil fuels. Coal is often the only alternative when low-cost, cleaner energy sources are inadequate to meet growing energy demand. Developing countries use about 55% of the world's coal today; this share is expected to grow to 65% over the next 15 years. In the year 2050, coal will account for more than 34% of the world's primary energy demand. The aim of the present article is to investigate the contribution of coal to global energy demand and coal perspectives for several countries.

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