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Fatih Demirbas M.,University Mah | Balat M.,University Mah | Balat H.,University Mah
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2011

In recent years, there has been a steadily increasing in the amount of solid waste due to the increasing human population and urbanization. Waste materials are generated from manufacturing processes, industries and municipal solid wastes (MSW). Waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies convert waste matter into various forms of fuel that can be used to supply energy. Today, a new generation of WTE technologies is emerging which hold the potential to create renewable energy from waste matter, including MSW, industrial waste, agricultural waste, and waste byproducts. There are four major methods for conversion of organic wastes to synthetic fuels: (1) hydrogenation, (2) pyrolysis, (3) gasification, and (4) bioconversion. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kirtay E.,University Mah
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2011

The aim of this paper is to highlight various processes for the conversion of biomass into hydrogen gas. Biomass energy has the potential to be "modernized" worldwide, i.e., produced and used efficiently and cost competitively, generally in the more convenient forms of gases, liquids, or electricity. Biomass will play an important role in the future global energy infrastructure for the generation of power and heat, but also for the production of chemicals and fuels. Biomass and biomass-derived fuels are can be used to produce hydrogen sustainably. The methods available for the hydrogen production from biomass can be divided into two main categories: thermochemical and biological routes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kirtay E.,University Mah
Energy Exploration and Exploitation | Year: 2010

This paper reviews the current status of renewable energy sources, assesses their potential to contribute to Turkey's energy demand, and examines the future prospects. Turkey is rapidly growing in terms of both its economy and its population. Turkey's vibrant economy has led to increased energy demand in recent years. The major energy demand is fulfilled from the conventional fossil energy resources like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Turkey has very limited indigenous energy resources and has to import around 73% of primary energy to meet its needs. Coal -especially lignite- is by far the most plentiful energy resource in Turkey. Turkey has great potential for developing renewable energy resources, but their contribution to country's energy demand is insignificant, less than 10%. Although the institutional framework has improved in Turkey with the new Law on Renewable Energy, it is not enough to really allow for a large scale integration of renewable energy in the country. As Turkey looks towards possible EU membership, it will need to continue utilizing renewable energy as a means to achieve sustainable economic development. New regulations in line with the EU energy regulations will increase the incentives for renewable energy projects. Total energy consumption is expected to increase more rapidly than domestic energy production through 2020. The country's energy consumption is expected to grow 170 Mtoe by the year 2015 and 222 Mtoe by 2020. Turkey plans to increase hydroelectricity, wind and geothermal energy production in the near future. The Turkish government announced a 30% objective for renewable energies by 2023 with plans to push wind energy up to 20000 MW of installations for the same year.


Balat M.,University Mah
Energy Exploration and Exploitation | Year: 2010

The aim of this study is to obtain bio-oil from pyrolysis of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood. Liquid, solid and gaseous products were obtained from black locust wood pyrolysis. The pyrolysis of biomass is a thermal treatment that results in the production of charcoal, liquid, and gaseous products. The liquid and gas products can be used in engine and turbine for power generation. Pyrolysis liquid is referred to in the literature by terms such as pyrolysis oil, biooil, bio-crude oil, bio-fuel oil, wood liquid, wood oil, liquid smoke, wood distillates, pyroligneous tar, pyroligneous acid. Bio-oil is not a product of thermodynamic equilibrium during pyrolysis but is produced with short reactor times and rapid cooling or quenching from the pyrolysis temperatures. The yields of bio-oil versus time by pyrolysis of black locust wood samples were very sharply increased from 5 to 20 minutes from approximately 5.6 to 35.3%, respectively. Then it was approached to the plateau value after 20 minutes. The influence of residence time on the yield of products is small, with a slight decrease in oil yield and increase in char yield. The yields of charcoal were 81.4 and 22.3% for 5 and 25 minutes, respectively.


Balat M.,University Mah
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2011

Bioethanol is by far the most widely used biofuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bioethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Bioethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. The price of the raw materials is highly volatile, which can highly affect the production costs of the bioethanol. One major problem with bioethanol production is the availability of raw materials for the production. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock considering its great availability and low cost, but the large-scale commercial production of fuel bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials has still not been implemented. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Balat M.,University Mah
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2011

Biodiesel production is a very modern and technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages. Currently, biodiesel is mainly prepared from conventionally grown edible oils such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm thus leading to alleviate food versus fuel issue. About 7% of global vegetable oil supplies were used for biodiesel production in 2007. Extensive use of edible oils may cause other significant problems such as starvation in developing countries. The use of non-edible plant oils when compared with edible oils is very significant in developing countries because of the tremendous demand for edible oils as food, and they are far too expensive to be used as fuel at present. The production of biodiesel from different non-edible oilseed crops has been extensively investigated over the last few years. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Demirbas A.,Sirnak University | Fatih Demirbas M.,University Mah
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2011

Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Demirbas A.,King Abdulaziz University | Demirbas A.,University Mah
Petroleum Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Fuel oils (numbers 1-6) are fractions of crude oil. The boiling point and carbon chain length of the fuel increases with fuel oil number. Viscosity increases with the number, and is needed to flow the heated heavy oil. No. 4 fuel oils are used as burner fuel for domestic and industrial heating and have to raise steam for power generation and marine propulsion. Recycling and rerefining are application processes for the treatment of petroleum-based heavy products by converting into reusable light products such as gasoline and No. 2 diesel fuel. Possible pyrolysis and cracking processes are appropriate. The purpose of this study is performed to obtain light products, especially gasoline and No. 2 diesel fuel from No. 4 fuel oil by the method of pyrolytic distillation. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was used in pyrolysis as catalyst and the purified oil samples were blended separately with catalysts having a mass basis of 5% and 10%. If the objective is to maximize the yield of distillate producing from No. 4 fuel oil, a low temperature and a high heating rate process would be required. The yield of gasoline-like fuel was 10.6% in the noncatalytic conversion, while 13.3% was obtained in the catalytic conversion. The yield of No. 2 diesel-like fuel was 23.3% in the noncatalytic conversion, while of 32.6% was obtained in the catalytic conversion. The yield of No. 2 diesel-like obtained from the catalytic conversion was higher 39.9% than that of the noncatalytic conversion. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Balat H.,University Mah | Kirtay E.,University Mah
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Hydrogen is considered in many countries to be an important alternative energy vector and a bridge to a sustainable energy future. Hydrogen is not an energy source. It is not primary energy existing freely in nature. Hydrogen is a secondary form of energy that has to be manufactured like electricity. It is an energy carrier. Hydrogen can be produced from a wide variety of primary energy sources and different production technologies. About half of all the hydrogen as currently produced is obtained from thermo catalytic and gasification processes using natural gas as a starting material, heavy oils and naphtha make up the next largest source, followed by coal. Currently, much research has been focused on sustainable and environmental friendly energy from biomass to replace conventional fossil fuels. Biomass can be considered as the best option and has the largest potential, which meets energy requirements and could insure fuel supply in the future. Biomass and biomass-derived fuels can be used to produce hydrogen sustainably. Biomass gasification offers the earliest and most economical route for the production of renewable hydrogen. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu.


Demirbas A.,University Mah
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

In this study, oils, micronutrients and heavy metal contents of tomato seeds and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits from different Turkish resources were determined. The tomato seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. The fatty acid composition of tomato seed oil was similar to that of soybean oil. Under supercritical conditions, partial thermal degradation occurs on the double bonds of unsaturated aliphatic carbons chains in fatty acids. Linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid in tomato seed oil. The concentrations of metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu, Zn, Na, K, Ca and Mg) were determined in tomato samples. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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