University of Magna Graecia

Italy

University of Magna Graecia

Italy
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Di Mascolo D.,Methodist Hospital Research Institute | Di Mascolo D.,University of Magna Graecia | Lyon C.J.,Methodist Hospital Research Institute | Aryal S.,Methodist Hospital Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2013

PPARγ nuclear receptor agonists have been shown to attenuate macrophage inflammatory responses implicated in the metabolic complications of obesity and in atherosclerosis. However, PPARγ agonists currently in clinical use, including rosiglitazone (RSG), are often associated with severe side effects that limit their therapeutic use. Here, 200 nm PLGA/PVA nanospheres were formulated for the systemic delivery of RSG specifically to macrophages. RSG was encapsulated with over 50% efficiency in the hydrophobic PLGA core and released specifically within the acidifying macrophage phagosomes. In bone marrow derived macrophages, RSG-loaded nanoparticles (RSG-NPs) induce a dose dependent upregulation (1.5 to 2.5-fold) of known PPARγ target genes, with maximal induction at 5 μM; and downregulate the expression of genes related to the inflammatory process, with a maximum effect at 10 μM. In Ldlr -/- mice fed high fat diet, treatment with RSG-NPs alleviated inflammation in white adipose tissue and liver but, unlike treatment with free RSG, did not alter genes associated with lipid metabolism or cardiac function, indicating a reduction in the RSG side effect profile. These biocompatible, biodegradable RSG-NPs represent a preliminary step towards the specific delivery of nuclear receptor agonists for the treatment of macrophage-mediated inflammatory conditions associated with obesity, atherosclerosis and other chronic disease states. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Pantano M.F.,University of Calabria | Pagnotta L.,University of Calabria | Nigro S.,University of Magna Graecia
Journal of Tribology | Year: 2014

While at high pressure, the classical Navier-Stokes equation is suitable for modeling squeeze-film damping, at low pressure, it needs some modification in order to consider fluid rarefaction. According to a common approach, fluid rarefaction can be included in this equation by substituting the standard fluid viscosity with a fictitious quantity, known as effective viscosity, for which different formulations were proposed. In order to identify which expression works better, the results obtained when either formulation is implemented inside the Navier-Stokes equation (that is then solved by both analytical and numerical means) are compared with already available experimental data. At the end, a novel expression is discussed, derived from a computer-assessed optimization procedure. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.


Pantano M.F.,University of Calabria | Nigro S.,University of Magna Graecia | Furgiuele F.,University of Calabria | Pagnotta L.,University of Calabria
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

The Navier-Stokes equation is currentlyconsidered for modelling of squeeze-film damping in MEMS devices, also when the fluid flow associated to it is rarefied.In order to include rarefaction effects in such equation, a common approach consists of replacing the ordinary fluid viscosity with a scaled quantity, known as effective viscosity.The literature offers different expressions for the effective viscosity as a function of the Knudsen number (Kn). Such expressions were shown to work well whenKn<1, but theyresulted to be lessaccurate in case ofKn>1. In this paper a new expression is proposed to evaluate the effective viscosity for 1


Pantano M.F.,University of Calabria | Pagnotta L.,University of Calabria | Nigro S.,University of Magna Graecia
Frattura ed Integrita Strutturale | Year: 2012

In a variety of MEMS applications, the thin film of fluid responsible of squeeze-film damping results to be rarefied and, thus, not suitable to be modeled though the classical Navier-Stokes equation. The simplest way to consider fluid rarefaction is the introduction of a slight modification into its ordinary formulation, by substituting the standard fluid viscosity with an effective viscosity term. In the present paper, some squeeze-film damping problems of both parallel and torsion plates at decreasing pressure are studied by numerical solving a full 3D Navier-Stokes equation, where the effective viscosity is computed according to proper expressions already included in the literature. Furthermore, the same expressions for the effective viscosity are implemented within known analytical models, still derived from the Navier-Stokes equation. In all the considered cases, the numerical results are shown to be very promising, providing comparable or even better agreement with the experimental data than the corresponding analytical results, even at low air pressure. Thus, unlike what is usually agreed in the literature, the effective viscosity approach can be efficiently applied at low pressure regimes, especially when this is combined with a finite element analysis (FEA).


PubMed | University of Magna Graecia
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2013

A plethora of work has been dedicated to the analysis of cell behavior on substrates with ordered topographical features. However, the natural cell microenvironment is characterized by biomechanical cues organized over multiple scales. Here, randomly rough, self-affinefractal surfaces are generated out of silicon,where roughness Ra and fractal dimension Df are independently controlled. The proliferation rates, the formation of adhesion structures, and the morphology of 3T3 murine fibroblasts are monitored over six different substrates. The proliferation rate is maximized on surfaces with moderate roughness (Ra ~ 40 nm) and large fractal dimension (Df ~ 2.4); whereas adhesion structures are wider and more stable on substrates with higher roughness (Ra ~ 50 nm) and lower fractal dimension (Df ~ 2.2). Higher proliferation occurson substrates exhibiting densely packed and sharp peaks, whereas more regular ridges favor adhesion. These results suggest that randomly roughtopographies can selectively modulate cell behavior.

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