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Sanga, Mozambique

Bittencourt-Silva G.B.,University of Basel | Conradie W.,Port Elizabeth Museum | Conradie W.,South African Institute For Aquatic Biodiversity | Siu-Ting K.,Aberystwyth University | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

The phylogenetic relationships of the African mongrel frog genus Nothophryne are poorly understood. We provide the first molecular assessment of the phylogenetic position of, and diversity within, this monotypic genus from across its range-the Afromontane regions of Malawi and Mozambique. Our analysis using a two-tiered phylogenetic approach allowed us to place the genus in Pyxicephalidae. Within the family, Nothophryne grouped with Tomopterna, a hypothesis judged significantly better than alternative hypotheses proposed based on morphology. Our analyses of populations across the range of Nothophryne suggest the presence of several cryptic species, at least one species per mountain. Formal recognition of these species is pending but there is a major conservation concern for these narrowly distributed populations in an area impacted by major habitat change. The phylogenetic tree of pyxicephalids is used to examine evolution of life history, ancestral habitat, and biogeography of this group. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Fernandes T.H.,Lurio University
Education for health (Abingdon, England) | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: In the remote northern region of Mozambique the ratio of doctors to patients is 1:50,000. In 2007, Lúrio University initiated an innovative, "One Student/One Family" program of teaching and learning for health professions students, to complement their traditional core curriculum. All students of each of the school's six health degree programs complete a curriculum in "Family and Community Health" in each year of their training.METHODS: Groups of six students from six different health professions training programs make weekly visits to communities, where each student is allocated to a family. Students learn from their families about community life and health issues, within a community where 80% of the population still lacks access to modern health care and rely on indigenous doctors and traditional remedies. In turn, students transmit information to families about modern health care and report to the faculty any major health problems they find. The educational/experiential approach is interprofessional and community-oriented.RESULTS: The main perceived advantages of the program are that it is applied and problem-based learning for students, while simultaneously providing needed healthcare services to the community. The major disadvantages include the complexity of coordinating multidisciplinary groups, the time and distance required of students in traveling to communities, and interpretation of multiple reports with variable data.DISCUSSION: This community-oriented education program involving students from six disciplines uses nontraditional teaching/learning methods is the basis of the ex libris of Lúrio University.

Barros A.B.,Lurio University | Barros A.B.,New University of Lisbon | Dias S.F.,New University of Lisbon | Martins M.R.O.,New University of Lisbon
Systematic Reviews | Year: 2015

Background: In public health, hard-to-reach populations are often recruited by non-probabilistic sampling methods that produce biased results. In order to overcome this, several sampling methods have been improved and developed in the last years. The aim of this systematic review was to identify all current methods used to survey most-at-risk populations of men who have sex with men and sex workers. The review also aimed to assess if there were any relations between the study populations and the sampling methods used to recruit them. Lastly, we wanted to assess if the number of publications originated in middle and low human development (MLHD) countries had been increasing in the last years. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases and a total of 268 published studies were included in the analysis. Results: In this review, 11 recruitment methods were identified. Semi-probabilistic methods were used most commonly to survey men who have sex with men, and the use of the Internet was the method that gathered more respondents. We found that female sex workers were more frequently recruited through non-probabilistic methods than men who have sex with men (odds = 2.2; p < 0.05; confidence interval (CI) [1.1-4.2]). In the last 6 years, the number of studies based in middle and low human development countries increased more than the number of studies based in very high and high human development countries (odds = 2.5; p < 0.05; CI [1.3-4.9]). Conclusions: This systematic literature review identified 11 methods used to sample men who have sex with men and female sex workers. There is an association between the type of sampling method and the population being studied. The number of studies based in middle and low human development countries has increased in the last 6 years of this study. © 2015 Barros et al.

Mbanze A.A.,Lurio University | Batista A.C.,Federal University of Parana | Tetto A.F.,Federal University of Parana | Koehler H.S.,Federal University of Parana | Manteiga J.B.,Forests of Niassa
Floresta | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to assess the influence of meteorological conditions on the fire occurrences in forest stands of Lichinga district, in the period from 2010 to 2012. Data about fire occurrences records of the district of Lichinga and two others close districts (Lago and Sanga) were provided by the Center for Monitoring and Control of Forest Fires (CCMIF) of the company Chikweti. Daily weather data: temperature, rainfall and relative humidity of the same period, recorded at 13:00 PM, by the meteorological station of the Institute of Agronomic Research of Mozambique (IIAM) in Lichinga district were also provided to this work. Meteorological data were submitted to regression analysis and Tukey test. The results showed a significant variation in temperature and humidity on both tests. The overlapping of fire occurrences and meteorological variables, suggested a great influence of the meteorological conditions in the occurrence of fires, mainly due to the very long dry periods. In 2010 there was a delay in the occurrence of fires; this was related to the rainy season which was slightly longer. September and October was the months that recorded the highest number of fire occurrences throughout the studied period.

Loughman J.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Loughman J.,African Vision Research Institute | Nxele L.L.,Brien Holden Vision Institute | Faria C.,Lurio University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness | Year: 2015

Introduction: Uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of visual impairment worldwide and leads to an impaired quality of life. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and presbyopia, to assess spectacle coverage, and to evaluate visual health-related quality of life among persons aged 15–50 years old in Nampula, Mozambique. Methods: Participants were assessed using a validated rapid assessment of refractive error protocol, comprised of a demographic questionnaire, a standardized ophthalmic assessment to determine refractive status and spectacle coverage, and a modified vision-related quality of life questionnaire to assess the impact of uncorrected refractive error on participants’ visual health status. Results: Among the 3,453 respondents, visual impairment prevalence was 3.5% (95%, CI 2.7%–4.2%), with 65.8% of those visually impaired being 35 years of age and older. Uncorrected refractive error prevalence was 2.6% (95%, CI 2.1–3.2%), and was the primary cause of visual impairment among 64.5% of cases. The spectacle coverage for uncorrected refractive error was 0%. Presbyopia prevalence was higher, at 25.8% (95%, CI 12.0–30.5%), with only 2.2% spectacle coverage. Respondents with visual impairment demonstrated statistically significantly lower quality of life scores compared to those without visual problems (p < 0.01). Implications for practitioners: The uncorrected refractive error problem and a distinct lack of spectacle coverage for refractive error and presbyopia indicate an urgent need for the development and delivery of a comprehensive refractive error service in the Nampula region of Mozambique. © 2015 AFB, All Rights Reserved.

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