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An increasing number of studies dealing with democratic transitions in Eastern Europe, especially those dedicated to aspects of social capital and political culture, stress their comparative component. The newly democratic countries in this region, used as unit of analysis, are often treated as being monolithic blocks. Even though they are not as homogeneous as they appear, their regional diversity does not pass through the lenses of the majority of those comparative studies. Furthermore, the studies usually do not include considerations on social mobilization or social movements and their relationship to the regime change. The purpose of this article is, therefore, to analyze the impact of historical legacies on differences of social mobilization in post-communist Romania. Following reports on regional discrepancies-mainly concerning ethnic composition, distribution of indicators of social capital and political participation-this paper focuses on patterns of social mobilization in two regions, with a common communist, but a divergent pre-communist history-Transylvania, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the rest of the country, part of the Ottoman Empire. Using two different time-series, monitoring protest activities throughout the two regions, we found relevant proof of dissimilar protest behavior within Romania. © 2015, Erdkunde. All rights reserved. Source

This study presents the upstream-downstream complexity of the Rhone, which earlier was a braided river. The fluvial patterns of the Rhône ca. 1860-70 are discussed, i.e. at the end of the Little Ice Age, which was also the beginning of the period of river dredging for improving navigation in the channel (1840-1930) and before the development of a chain of hydroelectric dams (1892-1986) on the river. Flowing across Switzerland and France to the Camargue delta on the Mediterranean, the Rhône drains the western part of the Alps in Europe. Befitting a large river flowing from the mountains, the Rhône was braided along most of its course, due to large quantities of coarse sediments formerly contributed by tributaries from the Alps, Jura Mountains, and Massif Central. The paper begins with a summary of palaeo-environmental studies on the Rhône, which show that the river experienced several events of fluvial metamorphosis during the Holocene. The reaches, which were braided during the late 19th century, alternated between meandering and braided patterns during this period due to the high sensitivity of the channel pattern to external variables such as changing water and sediment discharges. A discussion on the methods used to describe different aspects of the braided pattern of the Rhône from 1860 to 1870, using large-scale maps follows. Discrete reaches on the river are identified using slope, downstream variations of discharge, and stream power. These can be attributed to three factors: the tributaries (large supplies of bed load are brought by the Arve, the Ain, the Drôme, the Ardèche and the Durance rivers), Quaternary tectonics, and the along-channel distance from tributary confluences. Finally, the study assesses the pre-modern conditions of the Rhône for restoring selected reaches on the modern river. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Freight transportation constitutes one of the main activities that influence the economy and society, as it assures a vital link between suppliers and customers and represents a major source of employment. Multi-echelon distribution is one of the most common strategies adopted by the transportation companies in an aim of cost reduction. Although vehicle routing problems are very common in operational research, they are essentially related to single-echelon cases. This paper presents the main concepts of multi-echelon distribution with cross-docks and a unified notation for the N-echelon location routing problem. A literature review is also presented, in order to list the main problems and methods that can be helpful for scientists and transportation practitioners. Source

Lust T.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Rolland A.,University Lumiere Lyon 2
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2013

We study in this paper the generation of the Choquet optimal solutions of biobjective combinatorial optimization problems. Choquet optimal solutions are solutions that optimize a Choquet integral. The Choquet integral is used as an aggregation function, presenting different parameters, and allowing to take into account the interactions between the objectives. We develop a new property that characterizes the Choquet optimal solutions. From this property, a general method to easily generate these solutions in the case of two objectives is defined. We apply the method to two classical biobjective optimization combinatorial optimization problems: the biobjective knapsack problem and the biobjective minimum spanning tree problem. We show that Choquet optimal solutions that are not weighted sum optimal solutions represent only a small proportion of the Choquet optimal solutions and are located in a specific area of the objective space, but are much harder to compute than weighted sum optimal solutions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Pakendorf B.,University Lumiere Lyon 2
Current Opinion in Genetics and Development | Year: 2014

The evolution of languages shares certain characteristics with that of genes, such as the predominantly vertical line of transmission and the retention of traces of past events such as contact. Thus, studies of language phylogenies and their correlations with genetic phylogenies can enrich our understanding of human prehistory, while insights gained from genetic studies of past population contact can help shed light on the processes underlying language contact and change. As demonstrated by recent research, these evolutionary processes are more complex than simple models of gene-language coevolution predict, with linguistic boundaries only occasionally functioning as barriers to gene flow. More frequently, admixture takes place irrespective of linguistic differences, but with a detectable impact of contact-induced changes in the languages concerned. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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