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Saint-André-lez-Lille, France

Biver E.,Lille University Hospital Center | Biver E.,University Lille North of France
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the modalities and interest of the use of bone turnover markers (BTMs) in clinical practice for osteoporosis management. RECENT FINDINGS: Serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide and serum collagen type I crosslinked C-telopeptide are respectively the formation and resorption markers recommended to use as references for bone remodelling assessment in clinical studies. SUMMARY: Biochemical BTMs reflect changes in bone metabolism. In clinical practice, many factors influencing BTMs, variability needs to be integrated during all of the dosage process. They include sample collection and storage conditions, patient's characteristics and lifestyle habits, recent fracture. The reference intervals are also affected by the type of automated assays used to assess BTMs. Appropriate references measured with the same assay method must be used for the optimum interpretation of results. BTMs have been extensively used as indicators in the diagnosis and monitoring of osteoporosis. However, their interest was mainly demonstrated to reflect changes in bone metabolism under antiosteoporotic treatments in clinical studies. Significant reductions in BTMs associated with fracture risk reduction needs to be determined in the management of osteoporosis. The standardization of BTMs, assays with international reference standards should provide conditions to state on the applications of BTMs in routine clinical practice. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Labreuche J.,University Paris Diderot | Labreuche J.,Bichat University Hospital | Deplanque D.,University Paris Diderot | Deplanque D.,Bichat University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2010

Background and purpose: The contribution of modifying non-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce stroke risk remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between treatment-induced change in plasma triglyceride levels and risk of stroke and progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-regression analyses of randomized controlled trials of lipid-modifying treatments selected from a PubMed search on literature published from 1966 to 2008. Results: We identified 64 randomized controlled trials (active groups, n= 96,807; control groups, n= 98,681) that tested lipid-modifying drugs and reported triglyceride levels and stroke outcome. Extracting data from placebo groups, we found a statistically significant association between baseline triglyceride levels and stroke risk (adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.05 per 10-mg/dL increase; 95% CI, 1.03-1.07). Except for a trend in fibrate and niacin trials, there was no evidence of any relationship between degree of triglyceride change and stroke incidence. In multivariable meta-regression analysis including baseline and change in LDL-C, only change in LDL-C was associated with log risk ratio of all strokes (RR reduction, 4.5% per 10-mg/dL reduction; 95% CI, 1.7-7.2; P= .003). Similarly, taking into account 26 randomized controlled trials reporting CIMT outcome, LDL-C reduction was associated with reduced CIMT progression (-3.0 μm/y per 10-mg/dL reduction; 95% CI, -5.5 to -0.4; P= .03). Conclusions: In view of the limitations of meta-regression analysis and CIMT measures as surrogate endpoints in lipid-lowering drugs trials, additional studies are needed to more precisely quantify the detrimental effect of triglyceride levels on stroke risk and to establish the efficacy of triglyceride-lowering therapy in addition to LDL-C reduction. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Tarragon E.,Jaume I University | Tarragon E.,University of Murcia | Lopez D.,University of Murcia | Estrada C.,Jaume I University | And 7 more authors.
CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Summary: Octodon degus (O. degus) is a diurnal rodent that spontaneously develops several physiopathological conditions, analogous in many cases to those experienced by humans. In light of this, O. degus has recently been identified as a very valuable animal model for research in several medical fields, especially those concerned with neurodegenerative diseases in which risk is associated with aging. Octodon degus spontaneously develops β-amyloid deposits analogous to those observed in some cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, these deposits are thought to be the key feature for AD diagnosis, and one of the suggested causes of cell loss and cognitive deficit. This review aims to bring together information to support O. degus as a valuable model for the study of AD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Lavallee P.C.,University Paris Diderot | Labreuche J.,University Paris Diderot | Faille D.,University Paris Diderot | Huisse M.-G.,University Paris Diderot | And 10 more authors.
Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Small deep infarcts (SDI), also called lacunar infarcts, resulting from the occlusion of deep branch arteries, account for 25% of ischemic strokes. The physiopathology of the disease remains largely unknown. However, evidence about the role of endothelial dysfunction has emerged. Whereas chronic platelet activation is of major importance in acute thrombosis of large atherosclerotic arteries, its role in SDI remains unclear. Frequently associated risk factors are hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to determine platelet and endothelial activation in patients with recent SDI in comparison to population-based control subjects matched for age, sex and vascular risk factors. Methods: Platelet activation markers (activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, P-selectin and platelet microparticles), shear-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA) studied in the SIPAgreg device at 4,000 s -1, endothelial activation markers [including von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen and homocysteine] and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured in 74 consecutive patients with recent SDI, in whom detectable large artery atherosclerosis or cardiac embolism had been ruled out. Blood samples were collected 1 and 3 months after symptom onset. These factors were also measured in 74 population-based controls with no stroke history and matched for age, sex, hypertension and diabetes. Results: One month after symptom onset, the patients had similar levels of platelet activation to matched controls (p > 0.40 for all comparisons). In contrast, endothelial activation parameters were increased in patients in comparison to controls (vWF: p = 0.002 and homocysteinemia/creatinemia: p = 0.025). The level of hsCRP was slightly increased in patients compared to controls (p = 0.059). At 3 months, we observed a significant decrease in vWF and hsCRP levels in patients (median change in vWF = 10%, p = 0.004; median change in hsCRP = 0.4 mg/l, p = 0.02). Homocysteine levels and all platelet parameters remained unchanged at this time compared to at 1 month. Conclusions: Our results confirm that chronic platelet activation, when compared to controls matched for age, sex and vascular risk factors, did not seem to play a central role in the pathophysiology of lacunar stroke. In contrast, we found markers of endothelial dysfunction, the role of which in the occurrence of lacunar infarction has still to be clarified in further studies. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Bal L.,Blida University | Bal L.,University Lille North of France | Buyle-Bodin F.,University Lille North of France
Neural Computing and Applications | Year: 2014

The concrete is today the building material by excellence. Drying accompanies the hardening of concrete and leads to significant dimensional changes that appear as cracks. These cracks influence the durability of the concrete works. Deforming a concrete element subjected to long-term loading is the sum of said instantaneous and delayed deformation due to creep deformation. Concrete creep is the continuous process of deformation of an element, which exerts a constant or variable load. It depends in particular on the characteristics of concrete, age during loading, the thickness of the element of the environmental humidity, and time. Creep is a complex phenomenon, recognized but poorly understood. It is related to the effects of migration of water into the pores and capillaries of the matrix and to a process of reorganization of the structure of hydrated binder crystals. Applying a nonparametric approach called artificial neural network (ANN) to effectively predict the dimensional changes due to creep drying is the subject of this research. Using this approach allows to develop models for predicting creep. These models use a multilayer backpropagation. They depend on a very large database of experimental results issued from the literature (RILEM Data Bank) and on appropriate choice of architectures and learning processes. These models take into account the different parameters of concrete preservation and making, which affect drying creep of concrete as relative humidity, cure period, water-to-cement ratio (W/C), volume-to-surface area ratio (V/S), and fine aggregate-to-total aggregate ratio, or fine aggregate-to-total aggregate ratio. To validate these models, they are compared with parametric models as B3, ACI 209, CEB, and GL2000. In these comparisons, it appears that ANN approach describes correctly the evolution with time of drying creep. A parametric study is also conducted to quantify the degree of influence of some of the different parameters used in the developed neural network model. © 2014, Springer-Verlag London. Source

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