University LavalQuebec

Québec, Canada

University LavalQuebec

Québec, Canada
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Orozco-Lucero E.,University LavalQuebec | Dufort I.,University LavalQuebec | Sirard M.-A.,University LavalQuebec
Molecular Reproduction and Development | Year: 2017

The sequence of a 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of mRNA governs the timing of its polyadenylation and translation in mammalian oocytes and early embryos. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of cis-elements in the 3'UTR of the developmentally important ATF1 and ATF2 transcripts on their timely translation during first cleavages in bovine embryos. Eight different reporter mRNAs (coding sequence of green fluorescent protein [GFP] fused to the 3'UTR of short or long isoforms of cattle ATF1 or -2, with or without polyadenylation) or a control GFP mRNA were microinjected separately into presumptive bovine zygotes at 18hr post-insemination (hpi), followed by epifluorescence assessment for GFP translation between 24 and 80hpi (expressed as percentage of GFP-positive embryos calculated from the total number of individuals). The presence of either polyadenine or 3'UTR sequence in deadenylated constructs is required for GFP translation (implying the need for polyadenylation), and all exogenous mRNAs that met either criteria were translated as soon as 24hpi-except for long-deadenylated ATF2-UTR, whose translation began at 36hpi. Overall, GFP was more visibly translated in competent (cleaving) embryos, particularly in long ATF1/2 constructs. The current data shows a timely GFP translation in bovine embryos depending on sequences in the 3'UTR of ATF1/2, and indicates a difference between short and long isoforms. In addition, cleaving embryos displayed increased translational capacity of the tested constructs. Functional confirmation of the identification cis-sequences in the 3'UTR of ATF1/2 will contribute to the understanding of maternal mRNA translation regulation during early cattle development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Huq T.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Fraschini C.,Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada | Khan A.,University of New Brunswick | Riedl B.,University LavalQuebec | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2017

Probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595) was encapsulated in alginate-CNC-lecithin microbeads to produce nutraceutical microcapsules. Addition of CNC and lecithin in alginate microbeads (ACL-1) improved the viability of L. rhamnosus during gastric passage and storage. The compression strength of the freeze-dried ACL-1 microbeads improved 40% compared to alginate microbeads alone. Swelling studies revealed that addition of CNC and lecithin in alginate microbeads decreased (around 47%) the gastric fluid absorption but increased the dissolution time by 20 min compared to alginate microbeads (A-0). During transition through the gastric passage, the viability of L. rhamnosus in dried ACL-1 microbeads was increased 37% as compared to A-0 based beads. At 25 and 4 °C storage conditions, the viability of L. rhamnosus encapsulated in ACL-1 microbeads decreased by 1.23 and 1.08 log respectively, whereas the encapsulation with A-0 microbeads exhibited a 3.17 and 1.93 log reduction respectively. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Carrier F.,University LavalQuebec | Banayan D.,Rush University Medical Center | Boley R.,Rush University Medical Center | Karnik N.,Rush University Medical Center | Karnik N.,University of Chicago
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2017

As the classification of mental disorders advances towards a disease model as promoted by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), there is hope that a more thorough neurobiological understanding of mental illness may allow clinicians and researchers to determine treatment efficacy with less diagnostic variability. This paradigm shift has presented a variety of ethical issues to be considered in the development of psychiatric drugs. These challenges are not limited to informed consent practices, industry funding, and placebo use. The consideration for alternative research models and quality of research design also present ethical challenges in the development of psychiatric drugs. The imperatives to create valid and sound research that justify the human time, cost, risk and use of limited resources must also be considered. Clinical innovation, and consideration for special populations are also important aspects to take into account. Based on the breadth of these ethical concerns, it is particularly important that scientific questions regarding the development of psychiatric drugs be answered collaboratively by a variety of stakeholders. As the field expands, new ethical considerations will be raised with increased focus on genetic markers, personalized medicine, patient-centered outcomes research, and tension over funding. We suggest that innovation in trial design is necessary to better reflect practices in clinical settings and that there must be an emphasized focus on expanding the transparency of consent processes, regard for suicidality, and care in working with special populations to support the goal of developing sound psychiatric drug therapies. © 2017 The Authors


Pialasse J.-P.,University LavalQuebec | Mercier P.,University of Québec | Descarreaux M.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Simoneau M.,University LavalQuebec
Gait and Posture | Year: 2017

This work identifies, among adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, those demonstrating impaired sensorimotor control through a classification procedure comparing the amplitude of their vestibular-evoked postural responses. The sensorimotor control of healthy adolescents (n = 17) and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (n = 52) with either mild (Cobb angle ≥ 15° and ≤30°) or severe (Cobb angle >30°) spine deformation was assessed through galvanic vestibular stimulation. A classification procedure sorted out adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis whether the amplitude of their vestibular-evoked postural response was dissimilar or similar to controls. Compared to controls, galvanic vestibular stimulation evoked larger postural response in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Nonetheless, the classification procedure revealed that only 42.5% of all patients showed impaired sensorimotor control. Consequently, identifying patients with sensorimotor control impairment would allow to apply personalized treatments, help clinicians to establish prognosis and hopefully improve the condition of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Bernier M.,University LavalQuebec | Fournier V.,University LavalQuebec | Eccles L.,Technology Transfer Team
Canadian Entomologist | Year: 2015

The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is a non-native pest of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) newly introduced to Canada. The effectiveness of three in-hive traps was tested in springtime in West-Montérégie (southern Québec, Canada) and in late summer in Essex County (southern Ontario, Canada): AJ's Beetle Eater™ (AJ's Beetle Eater), Beetle Barn™ (Rossmann Apiaries), and Hood™ trap (Brushy Mountain Bee Farm). Traps were placed in the brood chamber of 12 colonies in West-Montérégie, and in 48 colonies in the top honey super in Essex County. In-hive traps were effective in reducing SHB populations without compromising the bee population or colony weight gain. In West-Montérégie, the Beetle Barn™ was the most effective trap during the first week, when SHB populations were high. It was less effective when honey bees sealed trap openings with propolis. In Essex County, the AJ's Beetle Eater™ was the most effective throughout the trial. There was no difference in efficacy between the various solutions used in the Hood™ trap (mineral oil versus mineral oil and apple cider vinegar). © Entomological Society of Canada 2014.


Celso F.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Mikhailenko S.D.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Mikhailenko S.D.,University LavalQuebec | Rodrigues M.A.S.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2016

Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) intended for fuel cell applications were prepared by embedding of various amounts of dispersed tri-sulfonic acid ethyl POSS (S-Et-POSS) and tri-sulfonic acid butyl POSS (S-Bu-POSS) in thin films of sulfonated poly ether-ether ketone. The electrical properties of the PEMs were studied by Impedance spectroscopy and it was found that their conductivity σ changes with the filler content following a curve with a maximum. The water uptake of these PEMs showed the same dependence. The investigation of initial isolated S-POSS substances revealed the properties of typical electrolytes, which however in both cases possessed low conductivities of 1. 17 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Et-POSS) and 3.52 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Bu-POSS). At the same time, the insoluble in water S-POSS was found forming highly conductive interface layer when wetted with liquid water and hence producing a strong positive impact on the conductivity of the composite PEM. Electrical properties of the composites were analysed within the frameworks of effective medium theory and bounding models, allowing to evaluate analytically the range of possible conductivity values. It was found that these approaches produced quite good approximation of the experimental data and constituted a fair basis for interpretation of the observed relationship. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University LavalQuebec and Higher Institute of Aeronautics and Space
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in human neuroscience | Year: 2016

Given the important amount of visual and auditory linguistic information that pilots have to process, operating an aircraft generates a high working-memory load (WML). In this context, the ability to focus attention on relevant information and to remain responsive to concurrent stimuli might be altered. Consequently, understanding the effects of WML on the processing of both linguistic targets and distractors is of particular interest in the study of pilot performance. In the present work, participants performed a simplified piloting task in which they had to follow one of three colored aircraft, according to specific written instructions (i.e., the written word for the color corresponding to the color of one of the aircraft) and to ignore either congruent or incongruent concurrent auditory distractors (i.e., a spoken name of color). The WML was manipulated with an n-back sub-task. Participants were instructed to apply the current written instruction in the low WML condition, and the 2-back written instruction in the high WML condition. Electrophysiological results revealed a major effect of WML at behavioral (i.e., decline of piloting performance), electrophysiological, and autonomic levels (i.e., greater pupil diameter). Increased WML consumed resources that could not be allocated to the processing of the linguistic stimuli, as indexed by lower P300/P600 amplitudes. Also, significantly, lower P600 responses were measured in incongruent vs. congruent trials in the low WML condition, showing a higher difficulty reorienting attention toward the written instruction, but this effect was canceled in the high WML condition. This suppression of interference in the high load condition is in line with the engagement/distraction trade-off model. We propose that P300/P600 components could be reliable indicators of WML and that they allow an estimation of its impact on the processing of linguistic stimuli.


Caron C.,University LavalQuebec | Boudreau D.,University LavalQuebec | Ritcey A.M.,University LavalQuebec
Journal of Materials Chemistry C | Year: 2015

Low-polydispersity europium-doped (H3O)Y3F10·xH2O single-crystal nanoparticles can be prepared via a simple reverse microemulsion method. The doping level of the particles can be varied by changing the relative concentration of europium to yttrium in the initial precursor mixture. Doping levels of up to 14 ± 2 at% can be attained without loss of the host crystal structure. Final europium concentrations, however, fall below those of the precursor solutions, suggesting that europium ions are less readily incorporated into the (H3O)Y3F10·xH2O crystal lattice than are yttrium ions. Emission spectra of the doped nanoparticles show sharp well-defined lines, which can be assigned to known europium transitions. The emission intensity increases linearly with increasing europium content. Europium ions within the nanocrystals exhibit excited-state lifetimes of 3-5 ms. These values are an order of magnitude greater than those of free ions in solution, indicating that ion incorporation in the yttrium fluoride matrix efficiently reduces non-radiative energy losses. Finally, data from time-resolved phosphorescence measurements suggests that europium ions within the particles are located in spectroscopically different environments which can be tentatively assigned to surface and core sites. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Juneau P.-M.,University LavalQuebec | Garnier A.,University LavalQuebec | Duchesne C.,University LavalQuebec
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2016

Cell morphology is an important macroscopic indicator of cellular physiology and is increasingly used as a mean of probing culture state in vitro. Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) is a valuable tool for observing live cells morphology over long periods of time with minimal culture artifact. Two general approaches are commonly used to analyze images: individual object segmentation and characterization by pattern recognition. Single-cell segmentation is difficult to achieve in PCM images of adherent cells since their contour is often irregular and blurry, and the cells bundle together when the culture reaches confluence. Alternatively, pattern recognition approaches such as the undecimated wavelet transform multivariate image analysis (UWT-MIA), allow extracting textural features from PCM images that are correlated with cellular morphology. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model built using textural features from a set of 200 ground truth images was shown to predict the distribution of cellular morphological features (major and minor axes length, orientation, and roundness) with good accuracy for most images. The PLS models were then applied on a large dataset of 631,136 images collected from live myoblast cell cultures acquired under different conditions and grown in two different culture media. The method was found sensitive to morphological changes due to cell growth (culture time) and those introduced by the use of different culture media, and was able to distinguish both sources of variations. The proposed approach is promising for application on large datasets of PCM live-cell images to assess cellular morphology and growth kinetics in real-time which could be beneficial for high-throughput screening as well as automated cell culture kinetics assessment and control applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | University LavalQuebec
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in physiology | Year: 2017

Prior peripheral hypoxia induced via remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can improve physical performance in male athletes through improved O

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