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Katowice, Poland

Objectives: The aim of the paper is to evaluate effectiveness of Gestalt therapy in the area of emotion regulation. Affective processes and regulation of emotion play an important part in the aetiology and clinical description of neurotic/anxiety disorder. When people who suffer this type of disorder face a negative experience they often use disadvantageous strategies, such as compulsive activities or avoidance. One of the meaningful aims of Gestalt therapy is to change that negative patterns of reaction, therefore the evaluation of its effects reinforces critical thinking about the therapy effectiveness. Method: 21 participants of Gestalt therapy groups were subjects of the research. The control group contained the same amount of people. Three questionnaires were used to assess strategies of emotion regulation: the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS) by Watson and Greer, the Anger Expression Scale (SEG) by Ogihska-Bulik and Juczynski and the Questionnaire of Emotion Regulation Adequacy (KARE) by Janowski in which the subjects had to indicate strategies that they would probably use in emotional situations and those that they assessed as being the most profitable. Questionnaire answers were collected on the beginning of Gestalt therapy and three months later. Results: The results have shown some expected changes within the declared reactions, but the significant modification of most optimal answers has not been noticed. Conclusions: Short-lasting positive effects of Gestalt therapy in the field of emotion regulation were confirmed. Source

The paper presents data on the distribution in the Polish part as well as habitat conditions and phytocoenotical scale of species from the Carex atrata complex in the Polish part of Karkonosze Mts (the Giant Mts). Localities of Carex atrata and C. aterrima are situated mainly in glacial cirques, where they grow in different high mountain plant communities of the Montio-Cardaminetea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea, Elyno-Seslerietea, and Juncetea trifidi classes. Since the two Carex species are closely related, main differences in their morphology are described. Source

This paper describes environmental conditions, floristic structure, and occurrence of plant communities from Isoëto-Nanojuncetea (Eleocharito ovatae-Caricetum bohemicae, Cyperus fuscus-Limosella aquatica) and Bidentetea tripartiti (Bidenti-Polygonetum hydropiperis) classes, in which therophytes are dominating. Source

A review, with 98 refs., of acidic, alk. and mixed initiator systems used in anionic polymerization for controlling the microstructure of butadiene and isoprene homopolymers (butadiene and isoprene rubbers) and copolymers with styrene (styrene-butadiene and styrene-isoprene rubbers). Source

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