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Allenstown Elementary School, United States

Philips B.H.,University Laboratory Animal Resources | Crim M.J.,IDEXX BioResearch | Crim M.J.,University of Missouri | Claire Hankenson F.,Michigan State University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science | Year: 2015

Despite the routine collection of oocytes from African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) for use in research, few studies have evaluated methods for preparing their skin for surgery. We evaluated 3 skin preparatory agents by examining their antibacterial efficacy and the gross and microscopic appearance of Xenopus skin after exposure. Frogs (n = 14) were sedated and treated (contact time, 10 min) with 0.9% sterile NaCl on one-half of the ventrum and with 0.5% povidone-iodine or 0.75% chlorhexidine on the other half. Bacterial cultures were obtained before and after skin treatment; bacteria were identified by mass spectrometry. To assess inflammation and degenerative changes, the incision sites were photographed and biopsied at 0, 1, and 7 d after surgery. We isolated at least 22 genera of bacteria from the skin of our frog population (mean ± SE, 5.21 ± 0.82 genera per frog). Iodine (2.00 ± 0.44 genera) and chlorhexidine (0.29 ± 0.76 genera) both had greater antimicrobial activity than did saline. Skin erythema did not correlate with treatment group. Histologic evidence of epidermal degeneration and necrosis was greater on days 1 and 7 after chlorhexidine treatment than after iodine or saline. In addition, frogs treated with chlorhexidine had a higher incidence of clinical illness associated with the exposure site. In summary, although chlorhexidine has adequate antimicrobial activity against organisms on X. laevis skin, it leads to skin damage and subsequent clinical complications. We therefore do not recommend chlorhexidine as a preoperative preparation agent in Xenopus. Source


Jaber S.M.,University Laboratory Animal Resources | Claire Hankenson F.,University Laboratory Animal Resources | Heng K.,University of California at Davis | McKinstry-Wu A.,University of Pennsylvania | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science | Year: 2014

Extending a surgical plane of anesthesia in mice by using injectable anesthetics typically is accomplished by repeat-bolus dosing. We compared the safety and efficacy of redosing protocols administered either during an anesthetic surgical plane (maintaining a continuous surgical plane, CSP), or immediately after leaving this plane (interrupted surgical plane, ISP) in C57BL/6J mice. Anesthesia was induced with ketamine, xylazine, and acepromazine (80, 8, and 1 mg/kg IP, respectively), and redosing protocols included 25% (0.25K), 50% (0.5K), or 100% (1.0K) of the initial ketamine dose or 25% (0.25KX) or 50% (0.5KX) of the initial ketamine-xylazine dose. In the ISP group, the surgical plane was extended by 13.8 ± 2.1 min (mean ± SEM) after redosing for the 0.25K redose with 50% returning to a surgical plane, 42.7 ± 4.5 min for the 0.5K redose with 88% returning to a surgical plane, and 44.3 ± 15.4 min for the 1.0K redose, 52.8 ± 7.2 min for the 0.25KX redose, and 45.9 ± 2.9 min for the 0.5KX redose, with 100% of mice returning to a surgical plane of anesthesia in these 3 groups. Mortality rates for ISP groups were 0%, 12%, 33%, 12%, and 18%, respectively. Mice in CSP groups had 50% mortality, independent of the repeat-dosing protocol. We recommend redosing mice with either 50% of the initial ketamine dose or 25% of the initial ketamine-xylazine dose immediately upon return of the pedal withdrawal reflex to extend the surgical plane of anesthesia in mice, optimize the extension of the surgical plane, and minimize mortality. © 2014 American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Source

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