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Gupta P.C.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Sharma N.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Rao C.V.,National Botanical Research Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To study detailed pharmacognostic profile of leaves and stem of Careya arborea (C. arborea) Roxb. (Lecthyidaceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Leaf and stem samples of C. arborea were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other methodsfor standardization recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, broadly obovate in shape, acuminate apex with crenate, dentate margin, petioles (0.1-1.8 cm) long. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of median large size vascular bundle covered with fibrous bundle sheath, arrangement of xylem in cup shape and presence of cortical vascular bundle, patches of sclerenchyma, phloem fibers in groups and brown pigment containing cells in stem aresome of the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed thepresence of parenchyma cells, xylem with pitted vessels and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Theinvestigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, swelling index, extractive values and ash valueswere also determined and results showed that total ash of the stem bark was about two times higherthan leaf and water soluble extractive value of leaf and stem bark was two times higher than alcoholsoluble extractive value. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuablesource of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in futureinvestigations and applications.

Gupta P.C.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Sharma N.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Rao C.V.,National Botanical Research Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley (Fumariaceae), known as " . Fumitory" , is an annual herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and Pakistan. The whole plant is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine, the plant is reputed for its anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, cholagogue, stomachic and sedative activities and is used to purify blood and in liver obstruction in ethnopharmacology. The whole plant is ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine and is also used in preparation of important Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and polyherbal liver formulations. The review reveals that phytochemical constituents of wide range have been separated from the plants and it possesses important pharmacological activities like smooth muscle relaxant, spasmogenic and spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuropharmacological and antibacterial activities. The separation of hepatoprotective and antifungal constituents from this plant was also reported newly. This review highlights the traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological information available on . Fumaria indica, which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Sharma N.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Gupta P.C.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Rao C.V.,National Botanical Research Institute
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant | Year: 2012

This study discusses the nutrient composition and the nutraceutical importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Kanpur. The study presents a nutrition composition and antioxidant activity of Amaranthus viridis whole herb and Moringa oleifera leaves for their nutraceutical value. Levels of some nutrients in Moringa oliefera leaves and Amaranthus viridis whole herb were determined using standard analytical methods. In M. oleifera leaves, crude protein was 20.51%, crude fiber 19.25%, crude fat 2.63%, ash content 5.13%, moisture content 71.73%, carbohydrate content 43.78% and the calorific value 430.41 kcal. For A. viridis crude protein was 2.11%, crude fiber 1.93%, crude fat 0.47%, ash content 1.85%, moisture content 87.90%, carbohydrate content 7.67% and the calorific value 43.35 kcal. The elemental analysis of the leaves in mg/100 g dry matter (DM) reveals the calcium and iron content of M. oleifera 2007.67 and 26.34, respectively. Leaves of A. viridis contained Calcium 330 mg/100 g, Fe 18.2, Mg 1842, P 52, K 3460, Na 108, Zn 10, Cu 300, Mn 8, Se 1.98 and Cr 0.92 mg. The antioxidant activity, IC50 μg mL -1 (DPPH method) of M. oliefera leaves and A. viridis herb was found to be 49.86 and 28.92, respectively. The study concludes that selected plant samples are an important source of proteins, crude fiber, carbohydrates, energy and minerals. The plants contain an appreciable amount of nutrients and can be included in diets to supplement our daily nutrient needs and to fight against many of the diseases as nutraceuticals. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

Gupta P.C.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Sharma N.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Rao C.V.,National Botanical Research Institute
International Journal of Phytomedicine | Year: 2011

Cleome viscosa L. (Capparidaceae), commonly known as "wild mustard", is an annual, sticky herb found as common weed all over the plains of India and throughout the tropics of the world. In traditional systems of medicine the plant is reported to possess beneficial effects as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, carminative, antiscorbutic, febrifuge, and cardiac stimulant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of 70% methnolic extract of leaf and stem part of Cleome viscosa (CV) by using different in vitro model such as β carotene bleaching assay, reducing power and free radical scavenging activity (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity). Total phenolic content were estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method using gallic acid as standard and expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and total flavonoid content was estimated by aluminium chloride colourimetric method. The total phenolic, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of Cleome viscosa leaves were found to be 66.38±0.82mg/g, 0.54±0.04mg/g and 77.30% respectively. Cleome viscosa leaves showed high free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by the low IC50 values in both DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) (373.18 μg/ml) and hydroxyl radical (573.55 μg/ml) methods. Cleome viscosa leaves possess high phenolic, flavonoid content and potential antioxidant activity, reducing power and free radical scavenging activity in comparison to stem.

Gupta P.C.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Gupta P.C.,Bhagwant University | Rao C.V.,National Botanical Research Institute | Sharma N.,University Institute of Pharmacy
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2013

Context: Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae) is used traditionally in the Indian system of medicine as a carminative, anthelmintic, and diuretic, and used for healing wounds, ulcers and diarrhea. Objective: A 70% ethanol (EtOH) extract of the aerial parts of Cleome viscosa extract (CVE) was investigated for gastroprotective activity in different gastric ulcer models in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in ulcers. Materials and methods: CVE (100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, twice daily for 5d, for prevention from EtOH, pylorus ligation (PL) and cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced ulcers in rats. Estimation of H+K +ATPase activity and gastric wall mucous were performed in EtOH-induced ulcer, antioxidant enzyme activities in supernatant mitochondrial fraction of CRS-induced ulcer, and gastric secretion parameters were estimated in PL-induced ulcer model Results: CVE showed significant (p<0.01) dose-dependent inhibition of lesion index in EtOH 15.93-42.30%, PL 26.34-59.28% and CRS 22.58-54.03%, respectively. CVE prevents the oxidative damage of gastric mucosa by blocking lipid peroxidation and by a significant (p<0.001) decrease in superoxide dismutase, and an increase in catalase activity. A significant (p<0.01) decrease occurred in the level of H+K +ATPase, volume of gastric juice and total acidity. Simultaneously, the level of gastric wall mucus and pH were increased significantly (p<0.05). High performance thin layer chromatography analysis showed the presence of quercetin and gallic acid (0.3% and 0.25% w/w, respectively) in CVE. Conclusions: Results of our study showed that C. viscosa possesses significant gastroprotective activity, probably due to free radical scavenging activity, and validates the folklore claim. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Gupta P.C.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Gupta P.C.,Bhagwant University | Rao C.V.,National Botanical Research Institute
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2012

Cleome viscosa Linn. (Family: Capparaceae) is an annual, sticky herb and commonly known as wild or dog mustard. It has various ethnomedicinal values as various traditional communities find diverse medicinal properties. This work aimed to study the macro- and microscopically, physicochemical, photochemical and fluorescence analysis of different parts of the C. viscosa. Macro- and microscopically studies showed the presence of palmate compound leaf with 3-5 leaflets, obviate to lanceolate, glandular and simple covering trachoma's and animistic arrangement of stomata. Sclerenchmatous caped vascular bundle in petiole, arc shaped per cyclic fibers in stem and distinct uni to biseriate medullary rays of root are some of the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study of the plant. Powder microscopy revealed the presence of fibres, spiral and pitted vessels, trichomes and calcium oxalate crystal. Total ash of leaf was about two times higher than root and about four times higher than seed. The fluorescent analysis under day light and UV light by treatment with different chemical reagents showed different colour. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids.

Gupta P.C.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Rao C.V.,National Botanical Research Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To study morpho-anatomical characters and physicochemical analysis of . Fumaria indica (. F. indica) (Hausskn.) Pugsley, (Fumariaceae), an important medicinal plant used extensively for treating a variety of ailments in various system of indigenous medicine. Methods: Evaluation of the different parts of the plant was carried out to determine the morpho-anatomical, physicochemical, phytochemical and HPTLC fingerprinting profile of . F. indica and other WHO recommended methods were performed for standardization. Results: Morpho-anatomical studies showed compound and pinnatifid leaf, 4 to 6 cm in length, linear and oblong in shape and anomocytic arrangement of stomata, thin walled parenchymatous cells, scattered, sclerenchymatous, capped vascular bundles and radiating medullary rays. Physicochemical studies showed foreign matter 0.2%, loss on drying 6.8%, total ash 16.77%, alcohol and water soluble extractives 8.92% and 20.26%, respectively, sugar 17.75%, starch 22.97% and tannins 2.37%. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and sterol. Thin layer chromatography was carried out with different solvents and the best solvent system was chloroform and methanol in 80:20 ratio and revealed 12 spots with different Rf value under UV light 366λ. Conclusion: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material for future investigations and applications. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Kumari P.,University Institute of Pharmacy | Mishra S.K.,University Institute of Pharmacy
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2016

Microsponges drug delivery approach (MDA) has been introduced in topical products to facilitate the controlled and targeted release of active drug into the skin to decrease systemic exposure and minimize local cutaneous reaction. Microsponges are highly cross-linked, polymeric sponge, porous in nature, spherical shape consisting of high drug content within their interconnecting voids, releasing bioactive agent at a target site within predetermined time. They are mostly used for prolonged topical administration, enhanced efficacy for topically therapeutic agent with safety, stability and reduced side effects followed by improved aesthetic properties in an efficient and novel manner. More ever, it is found to be stable over wide pH range and compatible with most vehicles. We here complied recent data regarding properties of microsponges, their methodology pharmaceutical application and list of patent till date. © 2016, Innovare Academics Sciences Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | King Abdulaziz University, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, University Institute of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC complementary and alternative medicine | Year: 2016

Natural products use for arthritis treatment is gaining importance in the medical worldt. Various studies reports medical importance of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (MM) (Melastomataceae), also known as putki, has a broad range of health benefits, for its free radical scavenging constituents. The current investigation scrutinizes the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of MM against adjuvant-induced arthritis in experimental rats.High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used for estimation of phytochemical-constituents present in the MM extract. Protective effect of MM extract in Wistar rats was estimated using CFA-induced model. The rats were divided into different groups with six rats in each group. All animals received oral administration of MM and indomethacin for 28days. The body weight and arthritic score were scrutinized at regular intervals. At the end of experimental protocol, the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples were used for antioxidant, hematological parameters, pro-inflammatory and inflammatory mediator, respectively. Histopathological observation was used to evaluate the protective effect of MM extract.Current study confirmed the preventive effect of MM against adjuvant-induced paw edema, paw redness and arthritic progression. MM significantly (P<0.001) modulated the oxidative stress parameters as well as hematological parameter induced by CFA. The result also altered the distorted level of proinflammatory mediators and inflammatory mediator, which further reinforce the implication of MM in CFA induced arthritis. Histological analyses of joints of rats showed a reduction in the synovial hyperplasia and mononuclear infiltration in the MM treated group which provides evidence for the antiarthritic effect of MM.From above parameters our study states that the MM is capable of restraining the alteration produced via adjuvant-induced arthritis in aminals. The repressing effect of MM could be attributed, at least in part, to antioxidant, hematological and anti-inflammatory effect. Figure Caption: Melastoma Malabathricum Linn Attenuates Complete Freunds Adjuvant-Induced Chronic Inflammation in Wistar rats by Inflammation Response.

PubMed | University Institute of Pharmacy, Clearsynth Labs Ltd., University of Queensland, University of Toledo and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B | Year: 2017

In this study we examined the suitability of the

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