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Smyth A.R.,University Institute of Health Sciences
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with CF, we tested these hypotheses. Prophylaxis: 1. improves clinical status, lung function and survival; 2. causes adverse effects (eg diarrhoea, skin rash, candidiasis); 3. leads to fewer isolates of common pathogens from respiratory secretions; 4. leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and colonisation of the respiratory tract with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Companies manufacturing anti-staphylococcal antibiotics were contacted.Most recent search of Register: 02 August 2012. Randomised trials of continuous oral prophylactic antibiotics (given for at least one year) compared to intermittent antibiotics given 'as required', in people with CF of any disease severity. The authors assessed studies for eligibility and methodological quality and extracted data. We included four studies, totaling 401 randomised participants aged zero to seven years on enrolment. Fewer children receiving anti-staphylococcal antibiotic prophylaxis had one or more isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. There was no significant difference between groups in infant or conventional lung function. We found no significant effect on nutrition, hospital admissions, additional courses of antibiotics or adverse effects. There was no significant difference in the number of isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa between groups, though there was a trend towards a lower cumulative isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the prophylaxis group at two and three years and towards a higher rate from four to six years. As the studies reviewed lasted six years or less, conclusions cannot be drawn about the long-term effects of prophylaxis. Anti-staphylococcal antibiotic prophylaxis leads to fewer children having isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, when commenced early in infancy and continued up to six years of age. The clinical importance of this finding is uncertain. Further research may establish whether the trend towards more children with CF with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after four to six years of prophylaxis, is a chance finding and whether choice of antibiotic or duration of treatment might influence this. Source

Parker B.,University Institute of Health Sciences
Lupus | Year: 2013

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a recently defined clustering of cardiovascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk of future type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have an increased prevalence of MetS and an increased prevalence of insulin resistance. Chronic inflammation may predispose to these complications in SLE and there is also evidence that corticosteroid therapy also contributes, although this finding has not been as consistent as would be predicted from the known metabolic effects of corticosteroids. MetS may represent a good model in which to begin to understand how SLE drives an increased risk of CVD. For now, the utility of identifying MetS in patients is to identify a subset in which more focused lifestyle interventions should be targeted and in whom medication review and adjustment (especially corticosteroid doses) should be considered to help modify future CVD risk. Source

Chiu D.Y.Y.,University Institute of Health Sciences
Nature Reviews Nephrology | Year: 2015

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) carry a high cardiovascular risk. In this patient group, cardiac structure and function are frequently abnormal and 74% of patients with CKD stage 5 have left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) at the initiation of renal replacement therapy. Cardiac changes, such as LVH and impaired left ventricular systolic function, have been associated with an unfavourable prognosis. Despite the prevalence of underlying cardiac abnormalities, symptoms may not manifest in many patients. Fortunately, a range of available and emerging cardiac imaging tools may assist with diagnosing and stratifying the risk and severity of heart disease in patients with CKD. Moreover, many of these techniques provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiac abnormalities in patients with renal disease. Knowledge of the currently available cardiac imaging modalities might help nephrologists to choose the most appropriate investigative tool based on individual patient circumstances. This Review describes established and emerging cardiac imaging modalities in this context, and compares their use in CKD patients with their use in the general population. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Source

McErlane F.,University Institute of Health Sciences
Rheumatology (Oxford, England) | Year: 2013

To describe the use of and response to biologic therapies commenced in adults with JIA. Patients with arthritis onset <16 years were identified from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for rheumatoid arthritis (BSRBR-RA) and stratified into ILAR JIA subtypes. Patterns of biologic use and treatment persistence were explored, with disability levels (HAQ) and remission rates [28-Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)] evaluated at 6 and 12 months. Arthritis with an onset of <16 years was confirmed in 225 patients and the ILAR subtype was determined in 154 (68%). Only 58 (26%) patients had a diagnosis of JIA recorded in the BSRBR-RA. The median age at biologic commencement was 31 years [interquartile range (IQR) 23-39] and 76% were female. The biologic therapies were etanercept (49%), infliximab (28%), adalimumab (22%) and anakinra (1%). Fifty per cent of patients received more than one biologic during follow-up (2 agents, n = 64; ≥3 agents, n = 49). Treatment persistence at 1 year was 78% (95% CI 71%, 82%), falling to 42% (95% CI 34%, 49%) at 5 years. Both the HAQ and DAS28 improved significantly at 6 months, with 21% and 28% of patients in remission (DAS28 < 2.6) at 6 and 12 months, respectively. This study describes patterns and identifies outcomes of biologic use in a national cohort of adults with JIA. With no national guidance currently available in this area, the choice of first biologic was inconsistent, although treatment outcomes were good. These data confirm that biologic therapies are an important treatment option in adults with active JIA in adulthood. Source

Strasser B.,University Institute of Health Sciences
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2013

Biological aging is typically associated with a progressive increase in body fat mass and a loss of lean body mass. Owing to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification, specifically changes in diet, physical activity, and exercise, is considered the cornerstone of obesity management. However, for most overweight people it is difficult to lose weight permanently through diet or exercise. Thus, prevention of weight gain is thought to be more effective than weight loss in reducing obesity rates. A key question is whether physical activity can extenuate age-related weight gain and promote metabolic health in adults. Current guidelines suggest that adults should accumulate about 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily to prevent unhealthy weight gain. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to better metabolic control. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences. Source

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