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Cleveland, OH, United States

Champagne B.J.,University Hospitals
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery | Year: 2013

Maintaining a standard of excellence for graduating surgical residents requires a comprehensive and consistent approach to surgical education. The omnipresent and increasing barriers to education must also be recognized and addressed. The implementation of effective teaching strategies is largely dependent on the resources available at each institution and the vision of education. Unfortunately, allocating time for surgeons to teach both inside and outside the operating room has become a foreign concept to administration. Furthermore, the reduction in case numbers performed by trainees now demands quality over quantity to ensure success. Quality teaching moments will only be realized when emphasis is placed on preparation, useful instruction during the procedure, and postoperative feedback. Ideal preparation entails a detailed discussion between the trainee and surgeon about the specific learning goals for the case. During the procedure, the faculty surgeon must strive to maximize the experience through effective communication while performing an efficient and safe operation. Numerous validated objective assessment tools exist for postprocedure evaluation but are grossly underutilized. Surgical education must thoughtfully be approached with the same fervor and detail as patient care. As faculty, it is our responsibility to train the next generation of surgeons and therefore every case must count. Copyright © 2013 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Importance: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a cutaneous neuroendocrine malignant neoplasm that can be highly aggressive and ultimately lethal. However, the cumulatively low incidence rate has made it difficult to accrue patients to prospective randomized trials. OBJECTIVE To determine whether patients with MCC in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database who received radiation therapy after resection demonstrate improved survival. DESIGN The study population consisted of SEER patients with histologically confirmed MCC who underwent surgical resection between January 1, 1998, and December 30, 2006. Cox proprotional hazards regression models were used to determine factors associated with MCC-specific and overall survival. Propensity scoring with matched pairs was used to perform Kaplan-Meier survival analysis comparing patients who underwent surgery plus radiation therapy vs those who underwent surgery alone. Setting and participants: National database study of participants at least 20 years old with MCC, matched for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diagnosis period, tumor size, disease stage, surgery of the primary site, type of lymph node surgery, and geographic region. Exclusion criteria included survival of less than 4 months and metastatic disease. Main outcomes and measures: Disease-specific survival and overall survival. Results: Factors that were independently associated with the use of radiation therapy included marital status, disease stage, and type of lymph node surgery. Factors associated with both MCC-specific and overall survival included age and disease stage. Propensity scoring and matched-pair analysis resulted in 269 matched pairs of patients and demonstrated that patients who received radiation therapy had improved overall survival (P = .03) but not MCC-specific survival (P = .26). Conclusions and relevance: The improvement in overall survival among SEER patients who receive radiation therapy following surgical resection of MCC may be a result of selection bias or unmeasured factors and not radiation therapy. © 2013 American Medical Association.

Nayak L.,University Hospitals | Lin Z.,University Hospitals Harrington ughlin Heart | Jain M.K.,University Hospitals Harrington ughlin Heart
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2011

Laminar shear stress is known to confer potent anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antiadhesive effects by differentially regulating endothelial gene expression. The identification of Krüppel-like factor 2 as a flow-responsive molecule has greatly advanced our understanding of molecular mechanisms governing vascular homeostasis. This review summarizes the current understanding of Krüppel-like factor 2 action in endothelial gene expression and function. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Wedzicha J.A.,University College London | Decramer M.,University Hospitals | Seemungal T.A.R.,University of the West Indies
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2012

Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are natural events in the progression of the disease, and are characterised by acute worsening of symptoms, especially dyspnoea. These heterogeneous events follow increased airway inflammation, often due to infection, and lead to decreased airflow and increased lung hyperinflation relative to stable COPD. Although exacerbation frequency generally increases as COPD progresses, some patients experience frequent exacerbations (≥ 2 per year) independently of disease severity. Exacerbations, especially frequent exacerbations, are associated with impaired health-related quality of life, reduced physical activity and poor disease prognosis. The cornerstone of pharmacotherapy for stable COPD is long-acting bronchodilators, including the long-acting β2- agonists (LABAs) and long-acting anti-muscarinic agents (LAMAs) alone or combined with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). While ICS treatment can potentially reduce the risk of exacerbations, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of LABAs and LAMAs in reducing COPD symptoms, primarily by reducing lung hyperinflation secondary to reduced airway resistance. Sustained reduction in lung hyperinflation may in turn lessen dyspnoea during an exacerbation. Indeed, recent studies suggest that bronchodilators may also reduce the incidence of, or prevent, exacerbations. Using data from recent studies, this review explores the evidence and possible mechanisms through which bronchodilators may prevent exacerbations. Copyright©ERS 2012.

Samama C.M.,University Hospitals
Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis | Year: 2016

Surgical bleeding has been decreasing steadily for the last 20 years, but there are still some hemorrhagic procedures occurring in scheduled surgical settings and emergency procedures. The interest in potent hemostatic agents has recently focused on fibrinogen concentrates. A weak historical rationale based on the rapid decrease in fibrinogen concentration in the bleeding patient and several uncontrolled studies have prompted the use of fibrinogen concentrates in emergency units and in operating theaters. Very few positive randomized studies are available to confirm the usefulness of fibrinogen concentrates. The largest most recent double-blind studies are even negative. As recent guidelines recommend early and liberal use of fibrinogen concentrates in massive bleeding patients, this review reports the most important facts and studies on efficacy and raises some questions about safety. © 2016 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

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