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Chaldakov G.N.,Medical University-Varna | Rancic G.,Medical Faculty | Fiore M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Panayotov P.,University St Marina Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Immunology, Endocrine and Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Recently, the secretory - endocrine, paracrine and autocrine - phenotype of adipose tissue, consisting of adipocytes, stromovascular cells and immune cells, has increasingly been recognized. In humans, adipose tissue is partitioned into two large depots (subcutaneous and visceral) and many small depots associated with heart, blood vessels, major lymph nodes, pancreas, prostate gland, ovaries. Accordingly, two major subfields of adipobiology have emerged, adipoendocrinology (studying the endocrine activity of adipose tissue) and adipoparacrinology (studying the paracrine activity of adipose tissue). Traditional concept of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis focuses on intimal surface, where endothelial dysfunction expressed by an "inside-out" inflammatory process triggers the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. The present short review highlights evidence for the possible role of dysfunctional paracrine activity of epicardial adipose tissue and of periadventitial adipose tissue in an "outside-in" pathway in the development of coronary and peripheral atherosclerosis, respectively. Such a paradigm may have various therapeutic applications including in coronary artery bypass surgery. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Chaldakov G.N.,Medical University-Varna | Beltowsky J.,Medical University of Lublin | Ghenev P.I.,Medical University-Varna | Fiore M.,CNR Institute of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Cell Biology International | Year: 2012

Human adipose tissue is partitioned into two large depots (subcutaneous and visceral), and many small depots associated with internal organs, e.g. heart, blood vessels, major lymph nodes, pancreas, prostate gland and ovaries. Since the adipose 'Big Bang' led to the discovery of leptin (Zhang, Proenca, Maffei, Barone, Leopold and Friedman, Nature 1994;372:425-32), adipose tissue has been seen not merely as a lipid store, but as a secretory - endocrine and paracrine - organ, particularly in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. Accordingly, two major sub-fields of adipobiology have emerged, viz. adipoendocrinology and adipoparacrinology, the latter herein being illustrated by PAAT (periadventitial adipose tissue) in vascular walls. A long-standing paradigm holds that the vascular wall consists of three coats, tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventitia. It is now imperative that 'to further elucidate vascular function, we should no longer, as hitherto, separate adventitia and PAAT from the vascular wall, but keep them attached and in place, and subject to thorough examination' (Chaldakov, Fiore, Ghenev, Stankulov and Aloe, Int Med J 2000;7:43-9; Chaldakov, Stankulov and Aloe, Atherosclerosis 2001;154:237-8; Chaldakov GN, Stankulov IS, Fiore M, Ghenev PI and Aloe L, Atherosclerosis 2001;159:57-66). From the available data, we propose that it is time to rethink about vascular wall composition, and suggest that the PAAT may be considered the fourth and outermost vascular coat, hence, tunica adiposa (regarding the proximal segment of coronary artery, it is the innermost part of the EAT (epicardial adipose tissue) situated around the coronary adventitia). Its significance in the pathogenesis and therapy of CMDs (cardiometabolic diseases), particularly atherosclerosis and hypertension, requires further basic, translational and clinical studies. © The Author(s) Journal compilation. © 2012 Portland Press Limited.

Tonchev A.B.,Medical University-Varna | Beltowski J.,Medical University of Lublin | Fiore M.,CNR Institute of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine | Rancic G.,University of Nis | And 4 more authors.
Biomedical Reviews | Year: 2010

Stem from the promise of stem cells therapeutic potential for a number of diseases, the regenerative medicine is reaching enthusiastic proportions nowadays. Current therapies include drug treatment, lifestyle modification, organ transplantation, RNA interference "breakthrough technology", and stem cell-based therapy. Research on stem cells is a multiplex challenge provoking both the attention and the confusion of biologists, biotechnologists, medical specialists, and politicians. By integrating various approaches of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, current adipobiology has identified more than 100 secretory proteins that are produced by the adipose tissue. These proteins designated adipokines include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, neuropeptides and hypothalamic hormones/releasing factors. In addition, the adipose tissue's secretome contains steroid hormones, free fatty acids, prostaglandins, and endocannabinoinds. Moreover, adipose tissue is the source of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC). Current interest in the ADSC stems from their multilineage differentiation potential, and ease of derivation in larger quantities using less invasive methods, compared with other stem cell types. The possible benefits of ADSC-based therapy may be mediated via cell proliferation/differentiation and/or paracrine mechanisms. The present review, focusing on adipose tissue secretory activity, also highlights the possible implication of ADSC in the therapy of various disorders, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, myocardial infarction and stroke, along with gut and liver diseases. © Bulgarian Society for Cell Biology.

Chaldakov G.N.,Medical University-Varna | Tuncel N.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | Beltowski J.,Medical University of Lublin | Fiore M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 8 more authors.
Balkan Medical Journal | Year: 2012

White adipose tissue (WAT) is a dynamic multicellular assembly composed of adipocytes and stromovascular cells, including fibroblasts, endothelial and immune cells, nerve fibers, and stem cells. In humans, WAT is a responsive and secretory (endocrine and paracrine) tissue partitioned into two large depots (subcutaneous and visceral) and many small depots associated with the heart, blood vessels, major lymph nodes, prostate gland, ovaries and mammary glands. This short review conceptualizes evidence for the paracrine activity of adipose tissue in founding a new research field, designated adipoparacrinology. Here we focus on (i) epicardial and periadventitial adipose tissue in atherogenesis, (ii) mammary gland-associated adipose tissue in breast cancer, and (iii) periprostatic adipose tissue in prostate cancer. Other examples include: (i) mesenteric adipose tissue in Crohn's disease, (ii) lymph node-associated (perinodal) adipose tissue in Crohn's disease and HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome, (iii) infrapatellar fat pad (Hoffa's fat pad) in knee osteoarthritis, (iv) orbital adipose tissue in thyroid-associated (Graves') ophthalmopathy, and (v) parasellar region-associated adipose tissue in brain disorders. The therapy aspect of adipoparacrinology is also discussed. © Trakya University Faculty of Medicine.

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