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Martinez-Una M.,University of the Basque Country | Martinez-Una M.,BioCruces Research Institute | Varela-Rey M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Hepaticas gestivas | Mestre D.,University of the Basque Country | And 23 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Background & Aims Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) export lipids from the liver to peripheral tissues and are the precursors of low-density-lipoproteins. Low levels of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) decrease triglyceride (TG) secretion in VLDLs, contributing to hepatosteatosis in methionine adenosyltransferase 1A knockout mice but nothing is known about the effect of SAMe on the circulating VLDL metabolism. We wanted to investigate whether excess SAMe could disrupt VLDL plasma metabolism and unravel the mechanisms involved. Methods Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) knockout (KO) mice, GNMT and perilipin-2 (PLIN2) double KO (GNMT-PLIN2-KO) and their respective wild type (WT) controls were used. A high fat diet (HFD) or a methionine deficient diet (MDD) was administrated to exacerbate or recover VLDL metabolism, respectively. Finally, 33 patients with non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD); 11 with hypertriglyceridemia and 22 with normal lipidemia were used in this study. Results We found that excess SAMe increases the turnover of hepatic TG stores for secretion in VLDL in GNMT-KO mice, a model of NAFLD with high SAMe levels. The disrupted VLDL assembly resulted in the secretion of enlarged, phosphatidylethanolamine-poor, TG- and apoE-enriched VLDL-particles; special features that lead to increased VLDL clearance and decreased serum TG levels. Re-establishing normal SAMe levels restored VLDL secretion, features and metabolism. In NAFLD patients, serum TG levels were lower when hepatic GNMT-protein expression was decreased. Conclusions Excess hepatic SAMe levels disrupt VLDL assembly and features and increase circulating VLDL clearance, which will cause increased VLDL-lipid supply to tissues and might contribute to the extrahepatic complications of NAFLD. © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Moya M.,University of Valencia | Benet M.,University of Valencia | Benet M.,CIBER ISCIII | Guzman C.,University of Valencia | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Triglyceride accumulation in nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) results from unbalanced lipid metabolism which, in the liver, is controlled by several transcription factors. The Foxa subfamily of winged helix/forkhead box (Fox) transcription factors comprises three members which play important roles in controlling both metabolism and homeostasis through the regulation of multiple target genes in the liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. In the mouse liver, Foxa2 is repressed by insulin and mediates fasting responses. Unlike Foxa2 however, the role of Foxa1 in the liver has not yet been investigated in detail. In this study, we evaluate the role of Foxa1 in two human liver cell models, primary cultured hepatocytes and HepG2 cells, by adenoviral infection. Moreover, human and rat livers were analyzed to determine Foxa1 regulation in NAFL. Results demonstrate that Foxa1 is a potent inhibitor of hepatic triglyceride synthesis, accumulation and secretion by repressing the expression of multiple target genes of these pathways (e.g., GPAM, DGAT2, MTP, APOB). Moreover, Foxa1 represses the fatty acid transporter protein FATP2 and lowers fatty acid uptake. Foxa1 also increases the breakdown of fatty acids by inducing peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation and ketone body synthesis. Finally, Foxa1 is able to largely up-regulate UCP1, thereby dissipating energy and consistently decreasing the mitochondria membrane potential. We also report that human and rat NAFL have a reduced Foxa1 expression, possibly through a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. We conclude that Foxa1 is an antisteatotic factor that coordinately tunes several lipid metabolic pathways to block triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes. However, Foxa1 is down-regulated in human and rat NAFL and, therefore, increasing Foxa1 levels could protect from steatosis. Altogether, we suggest that Foxa1 could be a novel therapeutic target for NAFL disease and insulin resistance. © 2012 Moya et al.

Vescovo T.,National Institute For Infectious Diseases Irccs L Spallanzani | Romagnoli A.,National Institute For Infectious Diseases Irccs L Spallanzani | Perdomo A.B.,National Institute For Infectious Diseases Irccs L Spallanzani | Corazzari M.,National Institute For Infectious Diseases Irccs L Spallanzani | And 11 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

Background & Aims: Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated catabolic process that mediates degradation and recycling of all major components of eukaryotic cells. Different stresses, including viral and bacterial infection, induce autophagy, which can promote cell survival by removing the stress inducer or by attenuating its dangerous effects. High levels of autophagy occur during infection of cells with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but the clinical relevance of this process is not clear. Methods: Levels of autophagy were analyzed in liver biopsy samples from 22 patients with HCV infection using microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 immunoblotting; associations with histological and metabolic parameters were evaluated by Pearson correlation analysis. We investigated the role of HCV-induced autophagy in lipid degradation in cells infected with the virus or replicons, and analyzed autophagosome contents by confocal microscopy and by measuring lipid levels after inhibition of autophagy by Beclin 1 knockdown or lysosome inhibitors. Results: In liver biopsy samples from patients with HCV, there was an inverse correlation between microvesicular steatosis and level of autophagy (r = -0.617; P =.002). HCV selectively induced autophagy of lipids in virus-infected and replicon cells. In each system, autophagosomes frequently colocalized with lipid deposits, mainly formed by unesterified cholesterol. Inhibition of the autophagic process in these cells significantly increased the induction of cholesterol accumulation by HCV. Conclusions: Autophagy counteracts the alterations in lipid metabolism induced by HCV. Disruption of the autophagic process might contribute to development of steatosis in patients with HCV. © 2012 AGA Institute.

Lima-Cabello E.,University of Leon | Garcia-Mediavilla M.V.,University of Leon | Garcia-Mediavilla M.V.,CIBER ISCIII | Miquilena-Colina M.E.,CIBER ISCIII | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Science | Year: 2011

NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is one of the most frequent chronic liver diseases worldwide. The metabolic factors associated with NAFLD are also determinants of liver disease progression in chronic HCV (hepatitis C virus) infection. It has been reported that, besides inducing hepatic fatty acid biosynthesis, LXR (liver X receptor) regulates a set of inflammatory genes. We aimed to evaluate the hepatic expression of LXRα and its lipogenic and inflammatory targets in 43 patients with NAFLD, 44 with chronic HCV infection and in 22 with histologically normal liver. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine hepatic expression levels of LXRα and related lipogenic and inflammatory mediators in the study population. We found that the LXRα gene and its lipogenic targets PPAR-γ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ ), SREBP (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein)-1c, SREBP-2 and FAS (fatty acid synthase) were overexpressed in the liver of NAFLD and HCV patients who had steatosis. Moreover, upregulation of inflammatory genes, such as TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-α, IL (interleukin)-6, OPN (osteopontin), iNOS (inducible NO synthase), COX (cyclo-oxygenase)-2 and SOCS (suppressors of cytokine signalling)-3, was observed in NAFLD and HCV patients. Interestingly, TNF-α, IL-6 and osteopontin gene expression was lower in patients with steatohepatitis than in those with steatosis. In conclusion, hepatic expression of LXRα and its related lipogenic and inflammatory genes is abnormally increased in NAFLD and HCV patients with steatosis, suggesting a potential role of LXRα in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in these chronic liver diseases. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society.

Miquilena-Colina M.E.,University Hospital Santa Cristina | Miquilena-Colina M.E.,CIBER ISCIII | Lima-Cabello E.,University of Leon | Sanchez-Campos S.,CIBER ISCIII | And 14 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2011

Background: Fatty acid translocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) mediates uptake and intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids in diverse cell types. While the pathogenic role of FAT/CD36 in hepatic steatosis in rodents is well-defined, little is known about its significance in human liver diseases. Objective: To examine the expression of FAT/CD36 and its cellular and subcellular distribution within the liver of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Patients: 34 patients with non-alcoholic steatosis (NAS), 30 with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), 66 with HCV genotype 1 (HCV G1) and 32 with non-diseased liver (NL). Methods: Real-time PCR and western blot analysis were used to assess hepatic FAT/CD36 expression. Computational image analysis of immunostained liver biopsy sections was performed to determine subcellular distribution and FAT/CD36 expression index. Results: Compared with NL, hepatic mRNA and protein levels of FAT/CD36 were significantly higher in patients with NAS (median fold increase 0.84 (range 0.15-1.61) and 0.66 (range 0.33-1.06), respectively); NASH (0.91 (0.22-1.81) and 0.81 (0.38-0.92), respectively); HCV G1 without steatosis (0.30 (0.17-1.59) and 0.33 (0.29-0.52), respectively); and HCV G1 with steatosis (0.85 (0.15-1.98) and 0.87 (0.52-1.26), respectively). In contrast to NL, FAT/CD36 was predominantly located at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes in patients with NAFLD and HCV G1 with steatosis. A significant correlation was observed between hepatic FAT/CD36 expression index and plasma insulin levels, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and histological grade of steatosis in patients with NASH (r=0.663, r=0.735 and r=0.711, respectively) and those with HCV G1 with steatosis (r=0.723, r=0.769 and r=0.648, respectively). Conclusions: Hepatic FAT/CD36 upregulation is significantly associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and increased steatosis in patients with NASH and HCV G1 with fatty liver. Translocation of this fatty acid transporter to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes may contribute to liver fat accumulation in patients with NAFLD and HCV.

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