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Borzych-Duzalka D.,Medical University of Gdańsk | Borzych-Duzalka D.,University of Heidelberg | Hataya H.,Tokyo Metropolitan Childrens Medical Center | Kennedy S.E.,University of New South Wales | And 9 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2014

End-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) during the neonatal period is a very rare condition, and little information is available regarding long-term RRT and outcomes. To gain more information, we performed a collaborative study on patient characteristics and treatment outcomes in children who started RRT as neonates during their first month of life between 2000 and 2011 who were prospectively registered in the ESPN/ERA-EDTA, the IPPN (since 2007), the Japanese registry, or the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) registry. During the first month of life, 264 patients from 32 countries started RRT and were followed for a median of 29 months (interquartile range 11-60 months). Most neonates (242) started on peritoneal dialysis, 21 started on hemodialysis, and 1 patient with a transplant. The most important causes of renal failure were congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in 141, cystic kidneys in 35, and cortical necrosis in 30. Within 2 years after the start of RRT, 69 children changed dialysis modality and 53 received a renal transplant. After a median of 7 months, 45 children had died, mainly because of infection, resulting in an estimated 2-year survival of 81%, and 5-year survival of 76%. Growth retardation (63%), anemia (55%), and hypertension (57%) were still major problems after 2 years. Thus, relatively good medium-term patient survival may be achieved with RRT started during the neonatal period, but specific therapeutic challenges continue to exist in this age group. © 2014 International Society of Nephrology.


Van Stralen K.J.,University of Amsterdam | Tizard E.J.,Bristol Royal Hospital for Children | Jager K.J.,University of Amsterdam | Schaefer F.,University of Heidelberg | And 14 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2010

Background. Few studies have investigated the determinants of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in paediatric patients starting on dialysis or with a transplant.Methods. Data were collected as part of the European Society of Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association registry from 14 European countries and referred to incident paediatric patients starting on renal replacement therapy (RRT) between 2002 and 2007 under the age of 18 years. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Schwartz formula. Data were adjusted for age, gender, treatment modality at start, primary cause of renal failure (PRD) and regions in Europe (eGFRadj). Results. Median eGFR in the 938 patients starting RRT was 10.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (5th and 95th percentile: 4.0-26.9). Twenty-six patients (2.8%), mainly infants with Finnish-type nephropathy, started with eGFR levels >50 mL/min/1.73 m2. Younger age, female gender, starting on dialysis and having a short time between the first visit to a paediatric nephrologist (PN) and start of RRT were associated with lower eGFR at start of RRT. Gender differences were only present during adolescent age and disappeared when using the same K value for both genders. The various PRDs showed large differences in the rate of decline in eGFR between the first visit to a PN and start of RRT; however, this did not result in differences in eGFRadj at start of RRT. Conclusions. The main determinants of eGFR at start of RRT were age, gender, treatment modality at start, and the time between the first visit to a PN and start of RRT. Research is needed to determine the consequences of these differences. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.


Parsons S.,SWEET Peer Review Programme | Waldron S.,SWEET Peer Review Programme | Campbell F.,Leeds Childrens Hospital | Pinto M.S.,Diabetes Center | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Diabetes | Year: 2016

This paper describes the background to the development, implementation, and subsequent management of a programme of peer review of Pediatric Diabetes Centres belonging to the SWEET Group. The paper summarizes the overall purpose of the programme, lists the principles upon which the programme is founded, and sets out the intended outcomes of the programme. Details are given of the way in which the programme is delivered and summarizes the key findings from the 16 centres reviewed to date. Finally the paper highlights the feedback that has been received from those who have been reviewed and those who have acted as reviewers and discusses ways in which the programme can be further developed in the future. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd


PubMed | Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Childrens Mercy Hospital, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, University of Helsinki and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Kidney international | Year: 2014

End-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) during the neonatal period is a very rare condition, and little information is available regarding long-term RRT and outcomes. To gain more information, we performed a collaborative study on patient characteristics and treatment outcomes in children who started RRT as neonates during their first month of life between 2000 and 2011 who were prospectively registered in the ESPN/ERA-EDTA, the IPPN (since 2007), the Japanese registry, or the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) registry. During the first month of life, 264 patients from 32 countries started RRT and were followed for a median of 29 months (interquartile range 11-60 months). Most neonates (242) started on peritoneal dialysis, 21 started on hemodialysis, and 1 patient with a transplant. The most important causes of renal failure were congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in 141, cystic kidneys in 35, and cortical necrosis in 30. Within 2 years after the start of RRT, 69 children changed dialysis modality and 53 received a renal transplant. After a median of 7 months, 45 children had died, mainly because of infection, resulting in an estimated 2-year survival of 81%, and 5-year survival of 76%. Growth retardation (63%), anemia (55%), and hypertension (57%) were still major problems after 2 years. Thus, relatively good medium-term patient survival may be achieved with RRT started during the neonatal period, but specific therapeutic challenges continue to exist in this age group.


PubMed | University of P.J. Šafarik, Research Institute for Mother and Child Health Care, University of Oslo, Semmelweis University and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association | Year: 2016

Growth retardation in paediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has a serious impact on adult life. It is potentially treatable with recombinant growth hormone (rGH). In this study, we aimed to quantify the variation in rGH policies and actual provided care in these patients across Europe.Renal registry representatives of 38 European countries received a structured questionnaire on rGH policy. Cross-sectional data on height and actual use of rGH on children with ESRD aged <18 years were retrieved from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry.In 21 (75%) of 28 responding countries, rGH is reimbursed for children with ESRD. The specific conditions for reimbursement (minimum age, maximum age and chronic kidney disease stage) vary considerably. Mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) at renal replacement therapy (RRT) [95% confidence interval (CI)] were significantly higher in countries where rGH was reimbursed -1.80 (-2.06; -1.53) compared with countries in which it was not reimbursed [-2.34 (-2.49;-2.18), P < 0.001]. Comparison of the mean height SDS at onset of RRT and final height SDS yielded similar results. Among the 13 countries for which both data on actual rGH use between 2007 and 2011 and data from the questionnaire were available, 30.1% of dialysis and 42.3% of transplanted patients had a short stature, while only 24.1 and 7.6% of those short children used rGH, respectively.Reimbursement of rGH associates with a less compromised final stature of ESRD children. In many countries with full rGH reimbursement, the actual rGH prescription in growth-retarded ESRD children is low and obviously more determined by the doctors and patients attitude towards rGH therapy than by financial hurdles.


Van Stralen K.J.,University of Amsterdam | Krischock L.,Royal Hospital for Sick Children | Schaefer F.,University of Heidelberg | Verrina E.,G Gaslini Hospital | And 13 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2012

BackgroundAnaemia is a common and potentially treatable co-morbidity of end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine the prevalence of the sub-target haemoglobin (Hb) level among European children on dialysis and to identify factors associated with a low Hb level.MethodsFrom the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN)/European Renal Association-European Dialysis Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) registry, data were available on 2351 children between 1 month and 18 years of age, totalling 5546 measurements from 19 countries.ResultsThe mean Hb level was 10.8 g/dL (5th-95th percentiles, 7.4-13.9). Among those above 2 years of age, the mean Hb level was 10.9 g/dL (11.4 below 8.5 g/dL), while it was 10.3 g/dL among those below 2 years (11.2 below 8.0 g/dL). A total of 91.2 of the patients were on an erythropoiesis- stimulating agent (ESA). Hb levels increased with age and were higher in peritoneal dialysis compared with haemodialysis patients. Patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract showed the highest Hb levels, and those with cystic kidney diseases or metabolic disorders the lowest ones. Ferritin levels between 25 and 50 ng/mL were associated with the highest Hb levels. We found a weak inverse association between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Hb. Whereas standardized blood pressure (BP) was not elevated in patients with above-target Hb, elevated systolic BP z-score was noted in those with sub-target Hb levels.ConclusionsSub-target Hb levels remain common in children on dialysis, in spite of virtually all children being treated with ESA; although we cannot exclude under-dosing. Optimal ferritin levels seemed to be slightly lower in children (25-50 ng/mL) than those in adults. Other risk factors for sub-target Hb are dialysis modality and a high PTH level. © 2012 The Author.


Billing H.,University of Heidelberg | Sander A.,University of Heidelberg | Susal C.,University of Heidelberg | Ovens J.,University of Heidelberg | And 9 more authors.
Transplant International | Year: 2013

Biomarker-based post-transplant immune monitoring for the prediction of impending graft rejection requires validation in specific patient populations. Serum of 28 pediatric renal transplant recipients within the framework of a well-controlled prospective randomized trial was analyzed pre- and post-transplant for soluble CD30 (sCD30), a biomarker reflecting mainly T-cell reactivity, and anti-human leukocyte antigen (anti-HLA) antibody reactivity, a biomarker for B-cell activation. A sCD30 concentration ≥40.3 U/ml on day 14 was able to discriminate between patients with or without biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 76%. Six of seven patients (86%) with BPAR showed a sCD30 above this cut-off, whereas only 3/21 patients (14%) without BPAR had a sCD30 above this cut-off (P = 0.004). For pre- and post-transplant anti-HLA class II reactivities by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a cut-off value of 140 optical density was able to discriminate rejecters from nonrejecters with a sensitivity of 86% or 71% and a specificity of 81% or 90%, respectively. Withdrawal of steroids was associated with a approximately twofold higher serum sCD30 compared to controls, but did not affect anti-HLA reactivities. An increased post-transplant sCD30 serum concentration and positive pre- and post-transplant anti-HLA class II reactivities are informative biomarkers for impending BPAR in pediatric renal transplant recipients. (TWIST, Clinical Trial No: FG-506-02-43) © 2012 The Authors Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Dvorakova H.M.,Institute of Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Dvorakova H.M.,University Hospital Prague Motol | Szitanyi P.,University General Teaching Hospital | Dvorak P.,Thomayer University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Physiological Research | Year: 2012

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but its basis is still not well understood. We therefore evaluated the determinants of atherosclerosis in children with ESRD. A total of 37 children with ESRD (with 31 who had undergone transplantation) were examined and compared to a control group comprising 22 healthy children. The common carotid intimamedia thickness (CIMT) was measured by ultrasound as a marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. The association of CIMT with anthropometrical data, blood pressure, plasma lipid levels, and other biochemical parameters potentially related to cardiovascular disease was evaluated. Children with ESRD had significantly higher CIMT, blood pressure, and levels of lipoprotein (a), urea, creatinine, ferritin, homocysteine, and serum uric acid as well as significantly lower values of apolipoprotein A. The atherogenic index of plasma (log(triglycerides/HDL cholesterol)) was also higher in patients with ESRD; however, this difference reached only borderline significance. In addition, a negative correlation was found between CIMT and serum albumin and bilirubin in the ESRD group, and this correlation was independent of age and body mass index. In the control group, a significant positive correlation was observed between CIMT and ferritin levels. Factors other than traditional cardiovascular properties, such as the antioxidative capacity of circulating blood, may be of importance during the early stages of atherosclerosis in children with endstage renal disease. © 2012 Institute of Physiology v.v.i.


Pastucha D.,Palacky University | Filipcikova R.,Palacky University | Horakova D.,Palacky University | Radova L.,Palacky University | And 6 more authors.
Physiological Research | Year: 2013

Common alimentary obesity frequently occurs on a polygenic basis as a typical lifestyle disorder in the developed countries. It is associated with characteristic complex metabolic changes, which are the cornerstones for future metabolic syndrome development. The aims of our study were 1) to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome (based on the diagnostic criteria defined by the International Diabetes Federation for children and adolescents) in Czech obese children, 2) to evaluate the incidence of insulin resistance according to HOMA-IR and QUICKI homeostatic indexes in obese children with and without metabolic syndrome, and 3) to consider the diagnostic value of these indexes for the early detection of metabolic syndrome in obese children. We therefore performed anthropometric and laboratory examinations to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the group of 274 children with obesity (128 boys and 146 girls) aged 9-17 years. Metabolic syndrome was found in 102 subjects (37 %). On the other hand, the presence of insulin resistance according to QUICKI <0.357 was identified in 86 % and according to HOMA-IR >3.16 in 53 % of obese subjects. This HOMA-IR limit was exceeded by 70 % children in the MS(+) group, but only by 43 % children in the MS(-) group (p<0.0001). However, a relatively high incidence of insulin resistance in obese children without metabolic syndrome raises a question whether the existing diagnostic criteria do not falsely exclude some cases of metabolic syndrome. On the basis of our results we suggest to pay a preventive attention also to obese children with insulin resistance even if they do not fulfill the actual diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome. © 2013 Institute of Physiology v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.


PubMed | University Hospital Prague Motol
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Physiological research | Year: 2012

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but its basis is still not well understood. We therefore evaluated the determinants of atherosclerosis in children with ESRD. A total of 37 children with ESRD (with 31 who had undergone transplantation) were examined and compared to a control group comprising 22 healthy children. The common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was measured by ultrasound as a marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. The association of CIMT with anthropometrical data, blood pressure, plasma lipid levels, and other biochemical parameters potentially related to cardiovascular disease was evaluated. Children with ESRD had significantly higher CIMT, blood pressure, and levels of lipoprotein (a), urea, creatinine, ferritin, homocysteine, and serum uric acid as well as significantly lower values of apolipoprotein A. The atherogenic index of plasma (log(triglycerides/HDL cholesterol)) was also higher in patients with ESRD; however, this difference reached only borderline significance. In addition, a negative correlation was found between CIMT and serum albumin and bilirubin in the ESRD group, and this correlation was independent of age and body mass index. In the control group, a significant positive correlation was observed between CIMT and ferritin levels. Factors other than traditional cardiovascular properties, such as the anti-oxidative capacity of circulating blood, may be of importance during the early stages of atherosclerosis in children with end-stage renal disease.

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