University Hospital Onofre Lopes

Natal, Brazil

University Hospital Onofre Lopes

Natal, Brazil

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Fernandes J.V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Fernandes T.A.A.M.,Grande Rio University | de Azevedo J.C.V.,University Hospital Onofre Lopes | Cobucci R.N.O.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | And 3 more authors.
Oncology Letters | Year: 2015

Inflammation is a defense strategy against invading agents and harmful molecules that is activated immediately following a stimulus, and involves the release of cytokines and chemokines, which activate the innate immune response. These mediators act together to increase blood flow and vascular permeability, facilitating recruitment of effector cells to the site of injury. Following resolution of the injury and removal of the stimulus, inflammation is disabled, but if the stimulus persists, inflammation becomes chronic and is strongly associated with cancer. This is likely to be due to the fact that the inflammation leads to a wound that does not heal, requiring a constant renewal of cells, which increases the risk of neoplastic transformation. Debris from phagocytosis, including the reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen that cause damage to DNA already damaged by the leukotrienes and prostaglandins, has an impact on inflammation and various carcinogenic routes. There is an association between chronic inflammation, persistent infection and cancer, where oncogenic action is mediated by autocrine and paracrine signals, causing changes in somatic cells under the influence of the microbial genome or of epigenetic factors. Among the infectious agents associated with cancer, certain genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) stand out. HPV is responsible for virtually all cases of cervical cancer and a lower proportion of cancers of the vagina, vulva, anus, penis and a number of extragenital cancers. In the present review, recent advances in the mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response are presented with their participation in the process of carcinogenesis, emphasizing the role of chronic inflammation in the development of HPV-induced cervical cancer. © 2015, Spandidos Publications. All rights received.


PubMed | Grande Rio University, University Hospital Onofre Lopes, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte and Potiguar University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncology letters | Year: 2015

Inflammation is a defense strategy against invading agents and harmful molecules that is activated immediately following a stimulus, and involves the release of cytokines and chemokines, which activate the innate immune response. These mediators act together to increase blood flow and vascular permeability, facilitating recruitment of effector cells to the site of injury. Following resolution of the injury and removal of the stimulus, inflammation is disabled, but if the stimulus persists, inflammation becomes chronic and is strongly associated with cancer. This is likely to be due to the fact that the inflammation leads to a wound that does not heal, requiring a constant renewal of cells, which increases the risk of neoplastic transformation. Debris from phagocytosis, including the reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen that cause damage to DNA already damaged by the leukotrienes and prostaglandins, has an impact on inflammation and various carcinogenic routes. There is an association between chronic inflammation, persistent infection and cancer, where oncogenic action is mediated by autocrine and paracrine signals, causing changes in somatic cells under the influence of the microbial genome or of epigenetic factors. Among the infectious agents associated with cancer, certain genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) stand out. HPV is responsible for virtually all cases of cervical cancer and a lower proportion of cancers of the vagina, vulva, anus, penis and a number of extragenital cancers. In the present review, recent advances in the mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response are presented with their participation in the process of carcinogenesis, emphasizing the role of chronic inflammation in the development of HPV-induced cervical cancer.


Firmino M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Angelo G.,University Hospital Onofre Lopes | Morais H.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Dantas M.R.,University Hospital Onofre Lopes | Valentim R.,University Hospital Onofre Lopes
BioMedical Engineering Online | Year: 2016

Background: CADe and CADx systems for the detection and diagnosis of lung cancer have been important areas of research in recent decades. However, these areas are being worked on separately. CADe systems do not present the radiological characteristics of tumors, and CADx systems do not detect nodules and do not have good levels of automation. As a result, these systems are not yet widely used in clinical settings. Methods: The purpose of this article is to develop a new system for detection and diagnosis of pulmonary nodules on CT images, grouping them into a single system for the identification and characterization of the nodules to improve the level of automation. The article also presents as contributions: the use of Watershed and Histogram of oriented Gradients (HOG) techniques for distinguishing the possible nodules from other structures and feature extraction for pulmonary nodules, respectively. For the diagnosis, it is based on the likelihood of malignancy allowing more aid in the decision making by the radiologists. A rule-based classifier and Support Vector Machine (SVM) have been used to eliminate false positives. Results: The database used in this research consisted of 420 cases obtained randomly from LIDC-IDRI. The segmentation method achieved an accuracy of 97 % and the detection system showed a sensitivity of 94.4 % with 7.04 false positives per case. Different types of nodules (isolated, juxtapleural, juxtavascular and ground-glass) with diameters between 3 mm and 30 mm have been detected. For the diagnosis of malignancy our system presented ROC curves with areas of: 0.91 for nodules highly unlikely of being malignant, 0.80 for nodules moderately unlikely of being malignant, 0.72 for nodules with indeterminate malignancy, 0.67 for nodules moderately suspicious of being malignant and 0.83 for nodules highly suspicious of being malignant. Conclusions:From our preliminary results, we believe that our system is promising for clinical applications assisting radiologists in the detection and diagnosis of lung cancer. © 2016 Firmino et al.


Firmino M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Morais A.H.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Mendoca R.M.,University Hospital Onofre Lopes | Dantas M.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | And 2 more authors.
BioMedical Engineering Online | Year: 2014

Introduction: The goal of this paper is to present a critical review of major Computer-Aided Detection systems (CADe) for lung cancer in order to identify challenges for future research. CADe systems must meet the following requirements: improve the performance of radiologists providing high sensitivity in the diagnosis, a low number of false positives (FP), have high processing speed, present high level of automation, low cost (of implementation, training, support and maintenance), the ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules, and software security assurance.Methods: The relevant literature related to " CADe for lung cancer" was obtained from PubMed, IEEEXplore and Science Direct database. Articles published from 2009 to 2013, and some articles previously published, were used. A systemic analysis was made on these articles and the results were summarized.Discussion: Based on literature search, it was observed that many if not all systems described in this survey have the potential to be important in clinical practice. However, no significant improvement was observed in sensitivity, number of false positives, level of automation and ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules in the studied period. Challenges were presented for future research.Conclusions: Further research is needed to improve existing systems and propose new solutions. For this, we believe that collaborative efforts through the creation of open source software communities are necessary to develop a CADe system with all the requirements mentioned and with a short development cycle. In addition, future CADe systems should improve the level of automation, through integration with picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and the electronic record of the patient, decrease the number of false positives, measure the evolution of tumors, evaluate the evolution of the oncological treatment, and its possible prognosis. © 2014 Firmino et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | University Hospital Onofre Lopes and Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
Type: | Journal: Biomedical engineering online | Year: 2016

CADe and CADx systems for the detection and diagnosis of lung cancer have been important areas of research in recent decades. However, these areas are being worked on separately. CADe systems do not present the radiological characteristics of tumors, and CADx systems do not detect nodules and do not have good levels of automation. As a result, these systems are not yet widely used in clinical settings.The purpose of this article is to develop a new system for detection and diagnosis of pulmonary nodules on CT images, grouping them into a single system for the identification and characterization of the nodules to improve the level of automation. The article also presents as contributions: the use of Watershed and Histogram of oriented Gradients (HOG) techniques for distinguishing the possible nodules from other structures and feature extraction for pulmonary nodules, respectively. For the diagnosis, it is based on the likelihood of malignancy allowing more aid in the decision making by the radiologists. A rule-based classifier and Support Vector Machine (SVM) have been used to eliminate false positives.The database used in this research consisted of 420 cases obtained randomly from LIDC-IDRI. The segmentation method achieved an accuracy of 97 % and the detection system showed a sensitivity of 94.4 % with 7.04 false positives per case. Different types of nodules (isolated, juxtapleural, juxtavascular and ground-glass) with diameters between 3 mm and 30 mm have been detected. For the diagnosis of malignancy our system presented ROC curves with areas of: 0.91 for nodules highly unlikely of being malignant, 0.80 for nodules moderately unlikely of being malignant, 0.72 for nodules with indeterminate malignancy, 0.67 for nodules moderately suspicious of being malignant and 0.83 for nodules highly suspicious of being malignant.From our preliminary results, we believe that our system is promising for clinical applications assisting radiologists in the detection and diagnosis of lung cancer.

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