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Wangberg S.C.,University Hospital of North Norway
Journal of medical Internet research | Year: 2011

Studies suggest that tailored materials are superior to nontailored materials in supporting health behavioral change. Several trials on tailored Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation have shown good effects. There have, however, been few attempts to isolate the effect of the tailoring component of an Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation and to compare it with the effectiveness of the other components. The study aim was to isolate the effect of tailored emails in an Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation by comparing two versions of the intervention, with and without tailored content. We conducted a two-arm, randomized controlled trial of the open and free Norwegian 12-month follow-up, fully automated Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation, slutta.no. We collected information online on demographics, smoking, self-efficacy, use of the website, and participant evaluation at enrollment and subsequently at 1, 3, and 12 months. Altogether, 2298 self-selected participants aged 16 years or older registered at the website between August 15, 2006 and December 7, 2007 and were randomly assigned to either a multicomponent, nontailored Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation (control) or a version of the same Internet-based intervention with tailored content delivered on the website and via email. Of the randomly assigned participants, 116 (of 419, response rate = 27.7%) in the intervention group and 128 (of 428, response rate = 29.9%) in the control group had participated over the 12 months and responded at the end of follow-up. The 7-day intention-to-treat abstinence rate at 1 month was 15.2% (149/982) among those receiving the tailored intervention, compared with 9.4% (94/999) among those who received the nontailored intervention (P < .001). The corresponding figures at 3 months were 13.5% (122/902) and 9.4% (84/896, P =.006) and at 12 months were 11.2% (47/419) and 11.7% (50/428, P = .91). Likewise, the intervention group had higher self-efficacy and perceived tailoring at 1 and 3 months. Self-efficacy was found to partially mediate the effect of the intervention. Tailoring an Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation seems to increase the success rates in the short term, but not in the long term.

Johansen M.V.,Copenhagen University | Lier T.,University Hospital of North Norway | Sithithaworn P.,Khon Kaen University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2015

Reaching the goal of control, elimination and eradication of the Neglected Tropical Disease in a foreseeable future provides significant challenges at the ground level especially regarding helminthiasis. Helminths are still mainly diagnoses by egg identification in stool, methods with low sensitivity and for most species low specificity. Cross-sectoral collaboration with regard to zoonoses is almost non-existing and cross-validation by inter-laboratory evaluation of diagnostic tests is not a common practice. The aim of this review was to elucidate the dilemma of helminth diagnosis using zoonotic trematodes as examples. Much progress has been made improving the diagnostic sensitivity of Opisthorchis and Clonorchis using DNA-based techniques but the specificity of these tests is still a challenge due to the many most common but neglected intestinal trematodes. The burden of these diseases and ways to control them remains to be elucidated. Although efficacious drugs are available, the effectiveness of mass drug administration remains to be assessed. The importance of animal reservoirs and ways to control the diseases in animals are yet unknown. Diagnostic challenges regarding Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mekongi include the many light infections and the persisting influx from the animal reservoirs. The sensitivity of the faecal based techniques suited morbidity control but will be insufficient for elimination of the helminths. More accurate diagnostic tools are required and new algorithms for detection and progression of helminth elimination will be needed. Standardized inter-laboratory test validation, inter-sectoral collaboration and establishment of an international One Health diagnostic platform, sharing best practices on diagnosis of helminth zoonoses, could all significantly contribute to control and elimination of these diseases. © 2013 The Authors.

Ekeland A.G.,University Hospital of North Norway | Grottland A.,Norwegian Center for Integrated Care and Telemedicine
International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care | Year: 2016

Objectives: Model for ASsessment of Telemedicine Applications (MAST) is a health technology assessment (HTA) inspired framework for assessing the effectiveness and contribution to quality of telemedicine applications based on rigorous, scientific data. This study reports from a study of how it was used and perceived in twenty-one pilots of the European project RENEWING HEALTH (RH). The objectives of RH were to implement large-scale, real-life test beds for the validation and subsequent evaluation of innovative patient-centered telemedicine services. The study is a contribution to the appraisal of HTA methods. Methods: A questionnaire was administered for project leaders of the pilots. It included questions about use and usefulness of MAST for (i) preceding considerations, (ii) evaluation of outcomes within seven domains, and (iii) considerations of transferability. Free text spaces allowed for proposals of improvement. The responses covered all pilots. A quantitative summary of use and a qualitative analysis of usefulness were performed. Results: MAST was used and considered useful for pilot evaluations. Challenges included problems to scientifically determine alternative service options and outcome within the seven domains. Proposals for improvement included process studies and adding domains of technological usability, responsible innovation, health literacy, behavior change, caregiver perspectives and motivational issues of professionals. Conclusions: MAST was used according to its structure. Its usefulness in patient centered pilots can be improved by adding new stakeholder groups. Interdependencies between scientific rigor, resources and timeliness should be addressed. Operational options for improvements include process studies, literature reviews and sequential mini-HTAs for identification of areas for more elaborate investigations. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (.

Kjeldsen-Kragh J.,Lund University | Skogen B.,University Hospital of North Norway | Skogen B.,University of Tromso
Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey | Year: 2013

Transfusion only occasionally gives rise to antibody production, because blood cells per se are not markedly immunogenic. However, the immunological changes that occur during pregnancy increase the risk of alloimmunization against red blood cells, platelets, and/or leukocytes. Fetal-maternal bleeding during pregnancy or in relation to delivery is the antigenic stimuli for immunization against red blood cells, whereas other mechanisms, such as trophoblast-derived microparticles, may also play a role in the production of antibodies against platelets. Antibody-mediated immune suppression has for 4 decades successfully been used for prevention of RhD immunization. Result from a mouse model of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) suggests that the same principle may be applied for the prevention of FNAIT. A European Union-funded consortium is presently in the process of developing a hyperimmune anti-human platelet antigen 1a (HPA-1a) immunoglobulin G. The idea is to prevent HPA-1a immunization by administering the drug to nonimmunized HPA-1a-negative women after delivery of an HPA-1a-positive child. The anti-HPA-1a will be purified from plasma collected from women who previously have given birth to a child with FNAIT caused by anti-HPA-1a. If the results of the planned phase III trial are favorable, it is possible that a product for prevention of FNAIT will be available within this decade.Target Audience: Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physiciansLearning Objectives: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to evaluate the immunological principles behind alloimmunization in pregnancy, compare the attributes of the 3 major hypotheses regarding how Rh prophylaxis works, and explain the most recent endeavors to develop a prophylaxis against fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Mortensen K.E.,University of Tromso | Revhaug A.,University Hospital of North Norway
European Surgical Research | Year: 2011

Methods/Aims: Despite improved preoperative evaluation, surgical techniques and perioperative intensive care, some patients still experience postoperative liver failure in part due to insufficient regeneration. The aim of this review is to give the reader a historical synopsis of the major trends in animal research on liver regeneration from the early experiments in 1877 up to modern investigation. A major focus is placed on the translational value of experimental surgery. Methods: A systematic review of the English literature published in Medline was undertaken with the search words 'pig, porcine, dog, canine, liver regeneration, experimental'. Results: The evolution of the various models tentatively explaining the process of liver regeneration is described. Conclusions: We conclude by emphasizing the importance of large-animal surgical research on liver regeneration as it offers a more integrated, systemic biological understanding of this complex process. Furthermore, in our opinion, a closer collaboration between the hepatologist, liver surgeon/transplant surgeon and the laboratory scientist may advance clinically relevant research in liver regeneration. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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