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Ncogo P.,Reference Center for Epidemics Control of Equatorial Guinea | Herrador Z.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Herrador Z.,A+ Network | Romay-Barja M.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 13 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Malaria has traditionally been a leading public health problem in Equatorial Guinea. After completion, in September 2011, of the integrated set of interventions against malaria launched by the Global Fund Malaria Programme in the mainland area, the epidemiological situation of malaria remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of malaria and associated factors based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) in Bata district, in order to provide evidence that will reinforce the National Malaria Control Programme. Methods: From June to August 2013, a representative cross sectional survey using a multistage, stratified, cluster-selected sample was carried out in urban zones and rural villages from Bata district. Data on socio-demographic, health status and malaria-related behaviours was collected. Malaria diagnosis was performed by RDT. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess malaria prevalence and its association with different factors. Results: Prevalence of malaria was higher in rural settings (58.9 %; CI 95 % 55.2-62.5 %) than in the sampled urban communities (33.9 %; CI 95 % 31.1-36.9 %). Presence of anaemia was also high, especially in rural sites (89.6 vs. 82.8 %, p < 0.001). The analyses show that a positive RDT result was significantly associated with age group, the most affected age range being 13 months-14 years old. Other significant covariates were ethnic group (only in urban sites), number of adults living in the house (only in rural villages) previous history of fever, anaemia (only in urban sites) and sleeping under a bed net. Moreover, those who never slept under a bed net were two times more likely to have malaria. Conclusion: The prevalence of malaria was high in Bata district, especially in rural villages. The National Programme to fight malaria in Equatorial Guinea should take into account the differences found between rural and urban communities and age groups to target appropriately those worst affected. The findings of this study will assist in planning and undertaking regional policy and other preventive initiatives. © 2015 Ncogo et al.

Branchini L.,New England Eye Center | Branchini L.,Boston University | Regatieri C.V.,New England Eye Center | Regatieri C.V.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To investigate the reproducibility of choroidal thickness measurements in normal subjects on 3 spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) instruments: Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA), Heidelberg Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and Optovue RTVue (Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA). Design: Cross-sectional non-interventional study. Participants: Images were obtained in 28 eyes of 28 healthy undilated volunteers without ocular pathology in a clinical setting. Methods: All subjects were imaged on the fovea using Cirrus HD 1-line raster, Spectralis enhanced depth imaging (EDI), and RTVue retina-cross. Main Outcome Measures: The choroid was measured subfoveally, 750 μm temporal, and 750 μm nasal to the fovea. All measurements were performed by 2 independent observers. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni's post-test, Pearson correlation, and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare measurements. Results: The group of 28 subjects consisted of 7 men and 21 women, with an average age of 35.2 years (range, 23-64 years). A 2-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post-test revealed no significant difference in the average subfoveal choroidal thickness (P > 0.05) among systems for any location: subfoveally, 750 μm temporal, and 750 μm nasal to the fovea. The measurements of choroidal thickness from any pair of 3 instruments (Cirrus vs. Spectralis, Cirrus vs. RTVue, Spectralis vs. RTVue) were also strongly correlated. The Pearson correlation among all 2 system pairs of the 3 systems was greater than 0.9 (P < 0.0001). The 95% limits of agreement among 4 choroidal thickness measurements were +11.21% to -13.57% (bias -1.17) between Cirrus and RTVue, +10.85% to -12.45% (bias -0.80) between Spectralis and RTVue, and +12.81% to -13.33% (bias -0.25) between Cirrus and Spectralis. Conclusions: In our population of young healthy adults with normal vision, there was good reproducibility among choroidal thickness measurements of images acquired with Cirrus, Spectralis, and RTVue. Financial Disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Amaral A.F.S.,Imperial College London | Newson R.B.,Imperial College London | Abramson M.J.,Monash University | Anto J.M.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | And 37 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2016

Background Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect. Objective We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period. Methods Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse. Results Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts. Conclusion Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier, Inc. on behalf ofthe American Academy of Allergy, Asthma&Immunology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.

Ruiz Picazo D.,University Hospital of Albacete
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics Part B | Year: 2016

Idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip (ICH) is a rare condition of unknown etiology, and is characterized by rapid, progressive destruction of the articular cartilage in the coxofemoral joint. This condition has an insidious onset, and is observed more commonly in female preadolescents. Patients report intense pain, motion restriction, and often present with an antalgic gait. Medical imaging techniques are required to make a differential diagnosis and biological markers for inflammation and infection should be evaluated. Avascular necrosis, septic arthritis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis are the primary alternatives that should be precluded before making a diagnosis. Conservative treatment focuses on pain control and preservation of joint mobility. However, surgical treatment may be an option for these patients. We present a rare case of a 10-year-old boy where imaging tests and physical examination were consistent with conventional idiopathic hip chondrolysis. Following hip joint biopsy and culture, we observed the presence of bacteria originating from the mouth, which could have been responsible for the pathogenesis of ICH. This is the first report of ICH in which common bacteria of the mouth were found upon joint biopsy. In addition, with respect to the pathogenesis of hip chondrolysis, this case emphasizes that numerous factors are involved, many of which remain unknown. Level of Evidence: V. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Montero J.C.,University of Salamanca | Garcia-Alonso S.,University of Salamanca | Ocana A.,University Hospital of Albacete | Pandiella A.,University of Salamanca
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

The activation status of a set of pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases in ovarian cancer patient samples was analyzed to define potential therapeutic targets. Frequent activation of HER family receptor tyrosine kinases, especially HER2, was observed. Studies in ovarian cancer cell lines confirmed the activation of HER2. Moreover, knockdown of HER2 caused a strong inhibition of their proliferation. Analyses of the action of agents that target HER2 indicated that the antibody drug conjugate trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) caused a substantial antitumoral effect in vivo and in vitro, and potentiated the action of drugs used in the therapy of ovarian cancer. T-DM1 provoked cell cycle arrest in mitosis, and caused the appearance of aberrant mitotic spindles in cells treated with the drug. Biochemical experiments confirmed accumulation of the mitotic markers phospho-Histone H3 and phospho-BUBR1 in cells treated with the drug. Prolonged treatment of ovarian cancer cells with T-DM1 provoked the appearance of multinucleated cells which later led to cell death. Together, these data indicate that HER2 represents an important oncogene in ovarian cancer, and suggest that targeting this tyrosine kinase with T-DM1 may be therapeutically effective, especially in ovarian tumors with high content of HER2.

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