Gasteiz / Vitoria, Spain
Gasteiz / Vitoria, Spain

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Salas-Salvado J.,Rovira i Virgili University | Bullo M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Estruch R.,Hospital Clinic | Ros E.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer | And 15 more authors.
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Interventions promoting weight loss can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Whether dietary changes without calorie restriction also protect from diabetes has not been evaluated. Objective: To assess the efficacy of Mediterranean diets for the primary prevention of diabetes in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea trial, from October 2003 to December 2010 (median follow-up, 4.1 years). Design: Subgroup analysis of a multicenter, randomized trial. (Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN35739639) Setting: Primary care centers in Spain. Participants: Men and women without diabetes (3541 patients aged 55 to 80 years) at high cardiovascular risk. Intervention: Participants were randomly assigned and stratified by site, sex, and age but not diabetes status to receive 1 of 3 diets: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts, or a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). No intervention to increase physical activity or lose weight was included. Measurements: Incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (prespecified secondary outcome). Results: During follow-up, 80, 92, and 101 new-onset cases of diabetes occurred in the Mediterranean diet supplemented with EVOO, Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, and control diet groups, respectively, corresponding to rates of 16.0, 18.7, and 23.6 cases per 1000 person-years. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.60 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.85) for the Mediterranean diet supplemented with EVOO and 0.82 (CI, 0.61 to 1.10) for the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts compared with the control diet. Limitations: Randomization was not stratified by diabetes status. Withdrawals were greater in the control group. Conclusion: A Mediterranean diet enriched with EVOO but without energy restrictions reduced diabetes risk among persons with high cardiovascular risk. © 2014 American College of Physicians.


PubMed | Rovira i Virgili University, University of Barcelona, University of the Balearic Islands, University of Valencia and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2016

Previous studies have suggested that metabolite profiles of elevated acylcarnitines were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in populations with established coronary disease. However, to our knowledge, this association has not been evaluated in the context of primary cardiovascular prevention.We evaluated the association between 28 plasma acylcarnitine species and risk of incident CVD and the potential modifying effect of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions.We measured plasma acylcarnitines with the use of high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and after 1 y of follow-up, both individually and classified into short-, medium-, or long-chain scores, in a case-cohort study within the Prevencin con Dieta Mediterrnea (PREDIMED) study, which is a randomized Mediterranean dietary intervention for primary cardiovascular prevention. A randomly selected subcohort (n = 751) and all available incident CVD cases (n = 229) after 4.8 y of follow-up were included in the current study.After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and other CVD risk factors, participants in the highest quartile of baseline short- and medium-chain acylcarnitines had a higher risk of CVD than did participants in the lowest quartile [HRs: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.91; P-trend 0.01) and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.48; P-trend = 0.04), respectively]. Increased short-chain acylcarnitines after 1 y were associated with higher risks of total CVD and stroke. Participants with higher baseline concentrations of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines who were randomly assigned to the control group had a higher risk of CVD than did subjects with lower concentrations of acylcarnitines who were assigned to the MedDiet group.Our data support the conclusion that metabolite profiles characterized by elevated concentrations of acylcarnitines are independently associated with risks of total CVD and stroke alone in participants at high risk of CVD. MedDiet interventions may mitigate the adverse associations shown between higher concentrations of acylcarnitines and CVD. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.


Asin-Prieto E.,University of the Basque Country | Soraluce A.,University of the Basque Country | Troconiz I.F.,University of Navarra | Campo Cimarras E.,University Hospital of Alava | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2015

Abstract The antibiotics used for prophylaxis in colorectal surgery must maintain appropriate plasma concentrations during the entire surgery to avoid surgical site infections caused by aerobes and anaerobes; cefuroxime plus metronidazole is one of the combinations used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of cefuroxime plus metronidazole administration as prophylaxis in colorectal surgery. In total, 63 patients electively undergoing rectal or colon surgery were administered 1500 mg of cefuroxime and 1500 mg of metronidazole in 15-min and 1-h infusions, respectively, prior to surgery. Blood samples were withdrawn during and after surgery for determination of plasma concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population pharmacokinetic models were developed using NONMEM 7.2.0. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) simulations were performed to explore the ability of different dosage regimens to achieve the pharmacodynamic targets. Pharmacokinetics for both antibiotics were best described by a two-compartment model. Elimination of cefuroxime was conditioned by creatinine clearance (CLCr). The half-life of cefuroxime was 1.5 h for patients with normal renal function and 4.9 h in patients with renal impairment. Elimination and distribution of metronidazole were affected by patient body weight (BW). PK/PD analysis revealed that a single-dose protocol of 1500 mg of cefuroxime and metronidazole is adequate in short surgeries (≤2 h). However, for longer surgeries, recommendations are suggested depending on the patient's CLCr and BW. Additional doses of cefuroxime are needed for patients with moderate renal impairment or those presenting normal renal function. For metronidazole, an additional dose is needed for patients with a BW of 90 kg. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Muruzabal-Lecumberri I.,University of the Basque Country | Muruzabal-Lecumberri I.,University of Stavanger | Girbau C.,University of the Basque Country | Canut A.,University Hospital of Alava | And 2 more authors.
APMIS | Year: 2015

Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a common cause of nosocomial infection in immunocompromised patients. The presence and dissemination of high-risk clonal complexes, such as CC2, is an ongoing problem in hospitals. The aim of this work was to characterize 24 E. faecalis isolates from ICU patients undergoing selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) by phenotypical (antimicrobial susceptibility) and genotypical (presence of virulence genes, RAPD-PCR and MLST) methods. Our results showed high prevalence of the ST6 E. faecalis clone (91.6%), especially adapted to the hospital environment, with a multidrug resistance pattern and a multitude of putative virulence genes. In addition, ST179 (4.2%) and ST191 (4.2%) were detected. By RAPD-PCR analysis, the 22 isolates identified as ST6 showed six different DNA patterns, while the two remaining isolates, ST179 and ST191, showed two additional profiles. CC2 is a known clonal complex with high adaptability to hospital environment and worldwide distribution. The high prevalence of the ST6 clone in the studied population could be related to the presence of gentamicin in the SDD mixture since most strains were gentamicin resistant. Consequently, strict surveillance should be applied for rapid detection and control of this clone to prevent future spread outside the ICU. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Arias N.,University of the Basque Country | Arias N.,CIBER ISCIII | MacArulla M.T.,University of the Basque Country | MacArulla M.T.,CIBER ISCIII | And 6 more authors.
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Quercetin exhibits a wide range of biological functions. The first aim of the present work was to analyze the effects of quercetin on fat accumulation in adipose tissue and glycemic control in rats. Any potential involvement of muscle fatty acid oxidation in its effect on glycemic control was also assessed. Animals were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet either supplemented with quercetin (30 mg/kg body weight/day), or not supplemented, for 6 weeks. One week before killing, a glucose tolerance test was carried out. Muscle triacylglycerol content, serum glucose, insulin, fructosamine and free fatty acids were measured, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The activities of lipogenic enzymes and lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1b (CPT-1b) and citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, and the expression of several genes, ACO, CD36, CPT-1b, PPAR-α, PGC-1α, UCP3, TFAM and COX-2 in skeletal muscle were analyzed. Quercetin caused no significant reduction in body weight or adipose tissue sizes. However, fructosamine, basal glucose and insulin, and consequently HOMA-IR, were significantly reduced by quercetin. No changes were observed in the activity of lipogenic enzymes and lipoprotein lipase. Muscle triacylglycerol content was similar in both experimental groups. The expression of ACO, CD36, CPT-1b, PPAR-α, PGC-1α, UCP3, TFAM and COX-2 remained unchanged. It can be concluded that quercetin is more effective as an anti-diabetic than as an anti-obesity biomolecule. The improvement in insulin resistance induced by this flavonoid is not mediated by a delipidating effect in skeletal muscle. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Rovira i Virgili University, University of Barcelona, CIBER ISCIII, University of Valencia and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2016

Epidemiological evidence suggests a cardioprotective role of -linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived -3 fatty acid. It is unclear whether ALA is beneficial in a background of high marine -3 fatty acids (long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) intake. In persons at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a country in which fish consumption is customarily high, we investigated whether meeting the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids recommendation for dietary ALA (0.7% of total energy) at baseline was related to all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We also examined the effect of meeting the societys recommendation for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (500 mg/day).We longitudinally evaluated 7202 participants in the PREvencin con DIeta MEDiterrnea (PREDIMED) trial. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios. ALA intake correlated to walnut consumption (r=0.94). During a 5.9-y follow-up, 431 deaths occurred (104 cardiovascular disease, 55 coronary heart disease, 32 sudden cardiac death, 25 stroke). The hazard ratios for meeting ALA recommendation (n=1615, 22.4%) were 0.72 (95% CI 0.56-0.92) for all-cause mortality and 0.95 (95% CI 0.58-1.57) for fatal cardiovascular disease. The hazard ratios for meeting the recommendation for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n=5452, 75.7%) were 0.84 (95% CI 0.67-1.05) for all-cause mortality, 0.61 (95% CI 0.39-0.96) for fatal cardiovascular disease, 0.54 (95% CI 0.29-0.99) for fatal coronary heart disease, and 0.49 (95% CI 0.22-1.01) for sudden cardiac death. The highest reduction in all-cause mortality occurred in participants meeting both recommendations (hazard ratio 0.63 [95% CI 0.45-0.87]).In participants without prior cardiovascular disease and high fish consumption, dietary ALA, supplied mainly by walnuts and olive oil, relates inversely to all-cause mortality, whereas protection from cardiac mortality is limited to fish-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.URL: http://www.Controlled-trials.com/. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639.


Estruch R.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Estruch R.,University of Barcelona | Ros E.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Ros E.,University of Barcelona | And 24 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. We conducted a randomized trial of this diet pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events. METHODS: In a multicenter trial in Spain, we randomly assigned participants who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly individual and group educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was the rate of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). On the basis of the results of an interim analysis, the trial was stopped after a median follow-up of 4.8 years. RESULTS: A total of 7447 persons were enrolled (age range, 55 to 80 years); 57% were women. The two Mediterranean-diet groups had good adherence to the intervention, according to self-reported intake and biomarker analyses. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.92) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.96) for the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (96 events) and the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (83 events), respectively, versus the control group (109 events). No diet-related adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons at high cardiovascular risk, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events. (Funded by the Spanish government's Instituto de Salud Carlos III and others; Controlled-Trials.com number, ISRCTN35739639.) Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Bonnin C.D.M.,University of Barcelona | Gonzalez-Pinto A.,University Hospital of Alava | Sole B.,University of Barcelona | Reinares M.,University Hospital of Alava | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2014

Background Most studies on the factors involved in the functional outcome of patients with bipolar disorder have identified subsyndromal depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment as key players. However, most studies are cross-sectional and very few have analyzed the interaction between cognition and subclinical depression. The present study aimed to identify the role of cognition, and particularly verbal memory, and subthreshold depressive symptoms in the functional outcome of patients with bipolar I and II disorder at one year follow-up. Method A confirmatory analysis was performed using the path analysis. A total of 111 euthymic patients were included to test the role of verbal memory as a mediator in the relationship of subthreshold depressive symptoms and functional outcome at one year follow-up. Measures of verbal memory, subthreshold depressive symptoms and functioning (at baseline, at 6 months and at one year follow-up) were gathered through the use of a neuropsychological assessment and validated clinical scales. Results The hypothesized mediation model displayed a good fit to data (Chi=0.393, df=2, p=0.625; RMSEA<0.001 with CI: 0.001-0.125 and CFI=1.00). Functional outcome at one year follow-up was predicted by the functional outcome at baseline, which in turn, was related to subthreshold depressive symptoms at baseline and to the verbal composite memory scores as a mediator variable. Conclusion The results of this study prospectively confirm previous findings on the disabling role of subthreshold depressive symptoms and verbal memory impairment on psychosocial functioning. However, these results come from a sample with moderate to severe functional impairment; hence, as a limitation, this may hinder the generalization of these results. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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