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Plzeň, Czech Republic

Papagiannitsis C.C.,Charles University | Papagiannitsis C.C.,University Hospital in Plzen | Dolejska M.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Izdebski R.,Polish National Medicines Institute | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

The complete nucleotide sequences of three multidrug resistance (MDR) IncA/C-like plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying the VIM-type carbapenemase-encoding integrons In4863 (blaVIM-19-aacA7-dfrA1-ΔaadA1-smr2) or In4873 (blaVIM-1-aacA7-dfrA1-ΔaadA1-smr2) were determined, which are the first In416-like elements identified in Greece. Plasmids pKP-Gr642 and pKP-Gr8143 were from Klebsiella pneumoniae ST383 isolates, whereas plasmid pEcl-Gr4873 was from an Enterobacter cloacae ST88 isolate. Sequencing showed that pKP-Gr642 (162 787 bp) and pKP-Gr8143 (154 395 bp) consisted of the type 1 IncA/C2 conserved backbone, the blaCMY-2-like gene-containing region, and the ARI-B (with the sul2 gene) and ARI-A (with a class 1 integron) resistance islands, like the plasmid pUMNK88-161 from the USA. The third plasmid, pEcl-Gr4873 (153 958 bp), exhibited extensive similarity with the type 2 IncA/C2 plasmid pR55 from France. pEcl-Gr4873 carried only one resistance island of a hybrid transposon structure inserted in a different location to ARI-A in type 1 A/C2 plasmids. In all three plasmids, the In416-like integrons In4863 or In4873 were identified within non-identical class II transposon structures. All three In416-like-carrying regions presented significant similarities with the MDR region of the IncA/C2 plasmid pCC416 from Italy, carrying the prototype In416 integron (blaVIM-4-aacA7-dfrA1-ΔaadA1-smr2). These findings provided the basis for speculations regarding the evolution of IncA/C2 plasmids with In416-like integrons, and confirmed the rapid evolution of some IncA/C2 plasmid lineages. Considering the broad host range of IncA/C2 molecules, it seems that pKP-Gr642, pKP-Gr8143 and pEcl-Gr4873 plasmids might support the diffusion of In416-like integrons among Enterobacteriaceae. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source

Hruban L.,Masaryk University | Spilka J.,Czech Technical University | Chudacek V.,Czech Technical University | Janku P.,Masaryk University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice

Rationale, aims and objectives To evaluate obstetricians' inter- and intra-observer agreement on intrapartum cardiotocogram (CTG) recordings and to examine obstetricians' evaluations with respect to umbilical artery pH and base deficit. Methods Nine experienced obstetricians annotated 634 intrapartum CTG recordings. The evaluation of each recording was divided into four steps: evaluation of two 30-minute windows in the first stage of labour, evaluation of one window in the second stage of labour and labour outcome prediction. The complete set of evaluations used for this experiment is available online. The inter- and intra-observer agreement was evaluated using proportion of agreement and kappa coefficient. Clinicians' sensitivity and specificity was computed with respect to umbilical artery pH, base deficit and to Apgar score at the fifth minute. Results The overall proportion of agreement between clinicians reached 48% with 95% confidence intervals (CI) (CI: 47-50). Regarding the different classes, proportion of agreement ranged from 57% (CI: 54-60) for normal to 41% (CI: 36-46) for pathological class. The sensitivity of clinicians' majority vote to objective outcome was 39% (CI: 16-63) for the umbilical artery base deficit and 27% (CI: 16-42) for pH. The specificity was 89% (CI: 86-92) for both types of objective outcome. Conclusions The reported inter-/intra-observer variability is large and this holds irrespective of clinicians' experience or work place. The results support the need of modernized guidelines for CTG evaluation and/or objectivization and repeatability by introduction of a computerized approach that could standardize the process of CTG evaluation within the delivery ward. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Chudackova E.,University Hospital in Plzen | Bergerova T.,University Hospital in Plzen | Fajfrlik K.,University Hospital in Plzen | Cervena D.,University Hospital in Plzen | And 4 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Letters

Resistance to carbapenems in enterobacteria is mediated by the production of several types of carbapenemases or by the decreased permeability of the outer membrane, combined with the expression of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or AmpC-like cephalosporinases. The objective of this study was to characterize carbapenem-nonsusceptible (C-NS) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the University Hospital in Plzeň (Czech Republic) and compare them with carbapenem-susceptible (C-S) K. pneumoniae isolates from the same patients. Six C-NS K pneumoniae isolates from different patients were collected between January 2007 and June 2008, and from three of these patients, C-S isolates were available for the study as well. The isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. β-Lactamases were analyzed by isoelectric focusing, bioassay, and PCR and sequencing of bla genes. Major porin channels, OmpK35 and OmpK36, were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot; porin genes were amplified and sequenced, and their expression was assessed by reverse transcriptase-PCR. The C-NS isolates belonged to three pulsotypes and to the clone ST11, produced the SHV-5 ESBL and/or DHA-1 AmpC-type cephalosporinase, did not express OmpK36, and had a reduced expression of OmpK35. The C-S isolates differed from their C-NS counterparts only by porin expression profiles. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

objective: One of the most important threats of current medicine is the spread of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria. We report here data from a six-month prevalence study on carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli performed in Czech hospitals participating on European Survey on Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE). methods: Ten hospitals covering all regions of the Czech Republic were selected. During the study period (1st November 2013 to 30th April 2014), first ten carbapenem non-susceptible isolates of K. pneumoniae or E. coli isolated from non-surveillance specimens (i.e., blood, lower respiratory tract secretions, urine, puncture fluids, and wound secretions) of single successive patients were collected. Successive carbapenem-susceptible isolates of the same species were also preserved as controls. Susceptibility to 15 antibiotics was determined using EUCAST recommendations. Carbapenemase activity was detected by MALDI-TOF MS meropenem hydrolysis assay. Positive isolates were subjected for molecular typing (multi-locus sequence typing, identification of carbapenemase gene). Results: During the study period, thirty non-susceptible isolates (K. pneumoniae n = 28, E. coli n = 2) were identified in 5 hospitals. Only two of them were confirmed to be carbapenemase producers. A NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae ST11 was recovered from a patient, transferred from Ukraine, being injured during a Maidan revolution. The second isolate, an OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae, belonging to ST101, was recovered from a patient admitted to a hospital for an ischemic stroke. Conclusions: This study again confirmed that the Czech Republic still belongs to the countries with low prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Cases of CPE are usually restricted to an import from high-prevalence countries or countries with unknown epidemiological situation. © 2015, Czech Medical Association J.E. Purkyne. All rights reserved. Source

Vokurka S.,University Hospital in Plzen | Svoboda T.,University Hospital in Plzen | Karas M.,University Hospital in Plzen | Koza V.,University Hospital in Plzen | And 3 more authors.
Medical Science Monitor

Background: Oral graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a signifcant complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and there is no consistent information about its characteristics in patients after reduced-intensity conditioning regimen FLU/MEL (fudarabine 120 mg/m 2 and melphalan 140mg/m 2). Material/Methods: This was a single-centre prospective observational study of patients after allogeneic SCT with FLU/MEL conditioning performed during the period 1/2005-12/2007. Characteristics of oral GVHD were observed in 71 patients. The observation was discontinued due to death, donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) or new chemotherapy administration. Results: In 10/2010, the median duration of the observation of the cohort of the patients was 13 (0.2-69) months, and 42 (35-69) months in the still-ongoing 20/71 (28%) patients. Oral acute GVHD had sporadic 7% incidence, whereas oral chronic GVHD was observed in 33% of patients and persisted with median duration of 188 (11-665) days. Clinical and histopathological features were similar in both acute and chronic oral GVHD and included mucosal lichenoid changes, erythema, ulcerations and pseudomembranes, satellite necrosis, apoptotic bodies and lichenoid interface infammation. Conclusions: It is necessary to consider complex clinical symptomatology and pathological correlations when classifying the oral GVHD, because local oral symptoms and histopathological features in both acute and chronic oral GVHD forms can be similar. Even though the oral chronic GVHD was mild in the majority of patients, it can be considered as clinically signifcant due to its incidence, duration and symptomatology. The FLU/MEL conditioning regimen should not be considered as low-risk protocol in this context. © Med Sci Monit. Source

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