Rovira-Llopis S.,University of Valencia |
Rovira-Llopis S.,University Hospital Doctor Peset |
Banuls C.,University of Valencia |
Banuls C.,University Hospital Doctor Peset |
And 10 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2014
Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is related to type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the influence of glycemic control on these parameters and its relationship with leukocyte-endothelial interactions is not known. In our study population consisting of 164 diabetic patients, (102 with glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7% and 62 with HbA1c >7%) and 84 nondiabetic controls, we have verified a common anthropometric and metabolic pattern of T2D with dyslipidemia. Inflammatory parameters (high-sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα]) and E-selectin levels were enhanced in the HbA1c >7% group with regard to controls. O2 consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential were lower in diabetic patients than in controls. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was enhanced in diabetic patients than in controls and positively correlated with HbA1c levels. GRP78 levels were higher in both diabetic groups. However, HbA1c <7% patients displayed higher levels of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (sXBP1), whereas HbA1c >7% patients exhibited preferentially enhanced levels of CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein [C/EBP] homologous protein) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Reduced leukocyte rolling velocity and increased rolling flux and adhesion were observed in diabetic patients. Our findings lead to the hypothesis of an association between poor glycemic control in T2D and increased leukocyte ROS production and chronic ER stress that could finally promote leukocyte-endothelial interactions, which, in turn, poses a risk of vascular complications for these patients. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1759-1765. Copyright © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.