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Borel J.-C.,AGIR a Dom | Borel J.-C.,Joseph Fourier University | Borel A.-L.,Joseph Fourier University | Borel A.-L.,University Hospital challon | And 7 more authors.
Respirology | Year: 2012

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is defined as a combination of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m 2), daytime hypercapnia (partial arterial carbon dioxide concentration ≥45 mm Hg) and sleep-disordered breathing after ruling out other disorders that may cause alveolar hypoventilation. Through the prism of the International Classification of Functioning, OHS is a chronic condition associated with respiratory, metabolic, hormonal and cardiovascular impairments, leading to a decrease in daily life activities, a lack of social participation and high risk of hospitalization and death. Despite its severity, OHS is largely underdiagnosed and the health-related costs are higher than those of apnoeic or obese eucapnic patients. The present review discusses the definition, epidemiology, physiopathology and treatment modalities of OHS. Although nocturnal positive airway pressure therapies represent first-line treatment and are effective in improving patient outcomes, there is a need to offer combined treatment strategies and to assess the effect of multimodal therapeutic strategies on morbidity and mortality. © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Source


Kaminski C.,Surgical ICU | Timsit J.-F.,University Hospital challon | Timsit J.-F.,Joseph Fourier University | Dubois Y.,University Hospital challon | And 10 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2011

Introduction: Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading pathogen responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the excess in mortality associated with multi-resistance in patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (PA-VAP), taking into account confounders such as treatment adequacy and prior length of stay in the ICU, has not yet been adequately estimated.Methods: A total of 223 episodes of PA-VAP recorded into the Outcomerea database were evaluated. Patients with ureido/carboxy-resistant P. aeruginosa (PRPA) were compared with those with ureido/carboxy-sensitive P. aeruginosa (PSPA) after matching on duration of ICU stay at VAP onset and adjustment for confounders.Results: Factors associated with onset of PRPA-VAP were as follows: admission to the ICU with septic shock, broad-spectrum antimicrobials at admission, prior use of ureido/carboxypenicillin, and colonization with PRPA before infection. Adequate antimicrobial therapy was more often delayed in the PRPA group. The crude ICU mortality rate and the hospital mortality rate were not different between the PRPA and the PSPA groups. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for time in the ICU before VAP diagnosis, neither ICU death (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32 to 1.69; P = 0.46) nor hospital death (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.99; P = 0.74) were increased in the presence of PRPA infection. This result remained unchanged in the subgroup of 87 patients who received adequate antimicrobial treatment on the day of VAP diagnosis.Conclusions: After adjustment, and despite the more frequent delay in the initiation of an adequate antimicrobial therapy in these patients, resistance to ureido/carboxypenicillin was not associated with ICU or hospital death in patients with PA-VAP. © 2011 Kaminski et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Laupland K.B.,Albert Bonniot Institute | Laupland K.B.,University of Calgary | Zahar J.-R.,Albert Bonniot Institute | Zahar J.-R.,Necker University Hospital | And 15 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background. Although hypothermia is widely accepted as a risk factor for subsequent infection in surgical patients, it has not been well defined in medical patients. We sought to assess the risk of acquiring intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infection after hypothermia among medical ICU patients. Methods. Adults (≥18 years) admitted to French ICUs for at least 2 days between April 2000 and November 2010 were included. Surgical patients were excluded. Patient were classified as having had mild hypothermia (35.0°C-35.9°C), moderate hypothermia (32°C-34.9°C), or severe hypothermia (<32°C), and were followed for the development of pneumonia or bloodstream infection until ICU discharge. Results. A total of 6237 patients were included. Within the first day of admission, 648 (10%) patients had mild hypothermia, 288 (5%) patients had moderate hypothermia, and 45 (1%) patients had severe hypothermia. Among the 5256 patients who did not have any hypothermia at day 1, subsequent hypothermia developed in 868 (17%), of which 673 (13%), 176 (3%), and 19 (<1%) patients had lowest temperatures of 35.0°C-35.9°C, 32.0°C-34.9°C, and <32°C, respectively. During the course of ICU admission, 320 (5%) patients developed ICU-acquired bloodstream infection and 724 (12%) patients developed ICU-acquired pneumonia. After controlling for confounding variables in multivariable analyses, severe hypothermia was found to increase the risk for subsequent ICU-acquired infection, particularly in patients who did not present with severe sepsis or septic shock.Conclusions.The presence of severe hypothermia is a risk factor for development of ICU-acquired infection in medical patients. © 2012 The Author. Source


Ouanes I.,Intensive Care Unit | Ouanes I.,University of Monastir | Schwebel C.,Albert Michallon University Hospital | Francais A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 47 more authors.
Journal of Critical Care | Year: 2012

Objective: Early unplanned readmission to the intensive care unit (ICU) carries a poor prognosis, and post-ICU mortality may be related, in part, to premature ICU discharge. Our objectives were to identify independent risk factors for early post-ICU readmission or death and to construct a prediction model. Design: Retrospective analysis of a prospective database was done. Setting: Four ICUs of the French Outcomerea network participated. Patients: Patients were consecutive adults with ICU stay longer than 24 hours who were discharged alive to same-hospital wards without treatment-limitation decisions. Main results: Of 5014 admitted patients, 3462 met our inclusion criteria. Age was 60.6 ± 17.6 years, and admission Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) was 35.1 ± 15.1. The rate of death or ICU readmission within 7 days after ICU discharge was 3.0%. Independent risk factors for this outcome were age, SAPS II at ICU admission, use of a central venous catheter in the ICU, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome scores before ICU discharge, and discharge at night. The predictive model based on these variables showed good calibration. Compared with SAPS II at admission or Stability and Workload Index for Transfer at discharge, discrimination was better with our model (area under receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.79). Conclusion: Among patients without treatment-limitation decisions and discharged alive from the ICU, 3.0% died or were readmitted within 7 days. Independent risk factors were indicators of patients' severity and discharge at night. Our prediction model should be evaluated in other ICU populations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Timsit J.-F.,Institut Universitaire de France | Timsit J.-F.,University Hospital challon | Bouadma L.,Bichat Claude Bernard University Hospital | Ruckly S.,Institut Universitaire de France | And 15 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: Major catheter-related infection includes catheter-related bloodstream infections and clinical sepsis without bloodstream infection resolving after catheter removal with a positive quantitative tip culture. Insertion site dressings are a major mean to reduce catheter infections by the extraluminal route. However, the importance of dressing disruptions in the occurrence of major catheter-related infection has never been studied in a large cohort of patients. Design: A secondary analysis of a randomized multicenter trial was performed in order to determine the importance of dressing disruption on the risk for development of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Measurements and Main Results: Among 1,419 patients (3,275 arterial or central-vein catheters) included, we identified 296 colonized catheters, 29 major catheter-related infections, and 23 catheter-related bloodstream infections. Of the 11,036 dressings changes, 7,347 (67%) were performed before the planned date because of soiling or undressing. Dressing disruption occurred more frequently in patients with higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores and in patients receiving renal replacement therapies; it was less frequent in males and patients admitted for coma. Subclavian access protected from dressing disruption. Dressing cost (especially staff cost) was inversely related to the rate of disruption. The number of dressing disruptions was related to increased risk for colonization of the skin around the catheter at removal (p < .0001). The risk of major catheter-related infection and catheter-related bloodstream infection increased by more than three-fold after the second dressing disruption and by more than ten-fold if the final dressing was disrupted, independently of other risk factors of infection. Conclusion: Disruption of catheter dressings was common and was an important risk factor for catheter-related infections. These data support the preferential use of the subclavian insertion site and enhanced efforts to reduce dressing disruption in postinsertion bundles of care. © 2012 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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