University Hospital Center Jena

Jena, Germany

University Hospital Center Jena

Jena, Germany
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Wiegand C.,University Hospital Center Jena | Moritz S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Hessler N.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Kralisch D.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine | Year: 2015

Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is chemically identical with plant cellulose but free of byproducts like lignin, pectin, and hemicelluloses, featuring a unique reticulate network of fine fibers. BNC sheets are mostly obtained by static cultivation. Now, a Horizontal Lift Reactor may provide a cost efficient method for mass production. This is of particular interest as BNC features several properties of an ideal wound dressing although it exhibits no bactericidal activity. Therefore, BNC was functionalized with the antiseptics povidone-iodine (PI) and polihexanide (PHMB). Drug loading and release, mechanical characteristics, biocompatibility, and antimicrobial efficacy were investigated. Antiseptics release was based on diffusion and swelling according to Ritger–Peppas equation. PI-loaded BNC demonstrated a delayed release compared to PHMB due to a high molar drug mass and structural changes induced by PI insertion into BNC that also increased the compressive strength of BNC samples. Biological assays demonstrated high biocompatibility of PI-loaded BNC in human keratinocytes but a distinctly lower antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus compared to PHMB-loaded BNC. Overall, BNC loaded with PHMB demonstrated a better therapeutic window. Moreover, compressive and tensile strength were not changed by incorporation of PHMB into BNC, and solidity during loading and release could be confirmed. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Ganske K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wiegand C.,University Hospital Center Jena | Hipler U.-C.,University Hospital Center Jena | Heinze T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Macromolecular Bioscience | Year: 2016

Cellulose phenyl carbonates are an excellent platform to synthesize a broad variety of soluble and functional cellulose carbamates. In this study, the synthesis of cellulose carbamates with terminal amino groups, namely ω-aminoethylcellulose- and ω-aminoethyl-p-aminobenzyl-cellulose carbamate, is discussed. The products are well soluble and their structures can be clearly described by NMR spectroscopy. The cellulose carbamates exhibit a bactericide and fungicide activity in vitro. The ω-aminoethylcellulose carbamate possesses a strong activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus (IC50 of 0.02 mg mL-1 and 0.05 mg mL-1). The antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity can be improved by p-amino-benzylamine (ABA) as an additional substituent. The mixed cellulose carbamate exhibits a high biocompatibility (LC50 of 3.18 mg mL-1) and forms films on cotton and PES, which exhibit a strong activity against S. aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


PubMed | University Hospital Center Jena and Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine | Year: 2015

Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is chemically identical with plant cellulose but free of byproducts like lignin, pectin, and hemicelluloses, featuring a unique reticulate network of fine fibers. BNC sheets are mostly obtained by static cultivation. Now, a Horizontal Lift Reactor may provide a cost efficient method for mass production. This is of particular interest as BNC features several properties of an ideal wound dressing although it exhibits no bactericidal activity. Therefore, BNC was functionalized with the antiseptics povidone-iodine (PI) and polihexanide (PHMB). Drug loading and release, mechanical characteristics, biocompatibility, and antimicrobial efficacy were investigated. Antiseptics release was based on diffusion and swelling according to Ritger-Peppas equation. PI-loaded BNC demonstrated a delayed release compared to PHMB due to a high molar drug mass and structural changes induced by PI insertion into BNC that also increased the compressive strength of BNC samples. Biological assays demonstrated high biocompatibility of PI-loaded BNC in human keratinocytes but a distinctly lower antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus compared to PHMB-loaded BNC. Overall, BNC loaded with PHMB demonstrated a better therapeutic window. Moreover, compressive and tensile strength were not changed by incorporation of PHMB into BNC, and solidity during loading and release could be confirmed.


PubMed | University Hospital Center Jena and Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Macromolecular bioscience | Year: 2016

Cellulose phenyl carbonates are an excellent platform to synthesize a broad variety of soluble and functional cellulose carbamates. In this study, the synthesis of cellulose carbamates with terminal amino groups, namely -aminoethylcellulose- and -aminoethyl-p-aminobenzyl-cellulose carbamate, is discussed. The products are well soluble and their structures can be clearly described by NMR spectroscopy. The cellulose carbamates exhibit a bactericide and fungicide activity in vitro. The -aminoethylcellulose carbamate possesses a strong activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus (IC50 of 0.02 mg mL(-1) and 0.05 mg mL(-1)). The antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity can be improved by p-amino-benzylamine (ABA) as an additional substituent. The mixed cellulose carbamate exhibits a high biocompatibility (LC50 of 3.18 mg mL(-1)) and forms films on cotton and PES, which exhibit a strong activity against S. aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae.


Wiegand C.,University Hospital Center Jena | Abel M.,Lohmann and Rauscher GmbH | Ruth P.,Lohmann and Rauscher GmbH | Elsner P.,University Hospital Center Jena | Hipler U.-C.,University Hospital Center Jena
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine | Year: 2015

Antibacterial activity of dressings containing antimicrobials is mostly evaluated using in vitro tests. However, the various methods available differ significantly in their properties and results obtained are influenced by the method selected, micro-organisms used, and extraction method, the degree of solubility or the diffusability of the test-compounds. Here, results on antimicrobial activity of silver-containing dressings obtained by agar diffusion test (ADT), challenge tests (JIS L 1902, AATCC 100), and extraction-based methods (microplate laser nephelometry (MLN), luminescent quantification of bacterial ATP (LQbATP)) using Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of the pH on antibacterial efficacy of these dressings was investigated. All silver-containing dressings exerted antimicrobial activity in all in vitro tests and results correlated considerably well. Differences were observed testing the agent-free basic materials. They did not exhibit any antimicrobial effects in the ADT, MLN or LQbATP, since these methods depend on diffusion/extraction of an active agent. However, they showed a strong antimicrobial effect in the challenge tests as they possess a high absorptive capacity, and are able to bind and sequester micro-organisms present. Therefore, it seems recommendable to choose several tests to distinguish whether a material conveys an active effect or a passive mechanism. In addition, it could be shown that release of silver and its antimicrobial efficacy is partially pH-dependent, and that dressings themselves affect the pH. It can further be speculated that dressings’ effects on pH and release of silver ions act synergistically for antimicrobial efficacy. © 2014, The Author(s).


Wiegand C.,University Hospital Center Jena | Abel M.,University Hospital Center Jena | Ruth P.,University Hospital Center Jena | Elsner P.,University Hospital Center Jena | Hipler U.-C.,University Hospital Center Jena
Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine | Year: 2015

Antibacterial activity of dressings containing antimicrobials is mostly evaluated using in vitro tests. However, the various methods available differ significantly in their properties and results obtained are influenced by the method selected, micro-organisms used, and extraction method, the degree of solubility or the diffusability of the test-compounds. Here, results on antimicrobial activity of silver-containing dressings obtained by agar diffusion test (ADT), challenge tests (JIS L 1902, AATCC 100), and extraction-based methods (microplate laser nephelometry (MLN), luminescent quantification of bacterial ATP (LQbATP)) using Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of the pH on antibacterial efficacy of these dressings was investigated. All silver-containing dressings exerted antimicrobial activity in all in vitro tests and results correlated considerably well. Differences were observed testing the agent-free basic materials. They did not exhibit any antimicrobial effects in the ADT, MLN or LQbATP, since these methods depend on diffusion/extraction of an active agent. However, they showed a strong antimicrobial effect in the challenge tests as they possess a high absorptive capacity, and are able to bind and sequester micro-organisms present. Therefore, it seems recommendable to choose several tests to distinguish whether a material conveys an active effect or a passive mechanism. In addition, it could be shown that release of silver and its antimicrobial efficacy is partially pH-dependent, and that dressings themselves affect the pH. It can further be speculated that dressings' effects on pH and release of silver ions act synergistically for antimicrobial efficacy.


Wiegand C.,University Hospital Center Jena | Abel M.,Lohmann and Rauscher GmbH | Ruth P.,Lohmann and Rauscher GmbH | Elsner P.,University Hospital Center Jena | Hipler U.-C.,University Hospital Center Jena
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology | Year: 2015

Background: Wound infection plays an important role in compromised wound healing. A high bioburden impairs healing and leads to formation of a chronic wound. Distinctly higher pH values were observed in chronic wounds compared to acute wounds. However, there is only limited knowledge of pH dependency on the antibacterial efficacy of common antimicrobial substances. Methods: This study investigated the pH influence on the antimicrobial efficacy of povidone (PVP)-iodine, silver nitrate, chlorhexidine, octenidine and polihexanide against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the agar diffusion test and microplate laser nephelometry. Results: The bactericidal activity of chlorhexidine and octenidine was mainly pH-independent in a pH range of 5.0-9.0. In contrast, polihexanide showed a significant efficacy increase at a higher pH. It was also found that the influence of the pH on antiseptics differs among species of bacteria. For instance, S. aureus exhibited an increasing sensitivity against silver nitrate with rising pH whereas the effect on P. aeruginosa was found to be distinctly decreased. The antimicrobial effect of PVP-iodine was strongly diminished with rising pH. Conclusions: The shift towards higher pH values in chronic wounds compared to acute wounds makes it imperative to know whether the antimicrobial efficacy of applied antimicrobial substances is altered by different pH levels. The results suggest that application of polihexanide might be advantageous for the management of wound infections, as both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa exhibited an increased susceptibility with rising pH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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