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Racil Z.,Masaryk University | Weinbergerova B.,Masaryk University | Kocmanova I.,University Hospital Brno | Muzik J.,Masaryk University | And 17 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Objectives: To evaluate risk factors, diagnostic procedures, and treatment outcomes of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with hematological malignancies. Methods: A retrospective analysis of data from proven/probable IA cases that occurred from 2005 to 2009 at 10 hematology centers was performed. Results: We identified 176 IA cases that mainly occurred in patients with acute leukemias (58.5%), mostly those on induction/re-induction treatments (39.8%). Prolonged neutropenia was the most frequent risk factor for IA (61.4%). The lungs were the most frequently affected site (93.8%) and computed tomography detected abnormalities in all episodes; however, only 53.7% of patients had findings suggestive of IA. Galactomannan (GM) detection in serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (positive in 79.1% and 78.8% of episodes, respectively) played a crucial role in IA diagnosis. Neutrophil count and antifungal prophylaxis did not influence the GM positivity rate, but empirical therapy decreased this rate (in serum). Of the IA cases, 53.2% responded to initial antifungal therapy. The combination of voriconazole and echinocandin, even as initial or salvage therapy, did not perform better than voriconazole monotherapy (p=. 0.924 for initial therapy and p=. 0.205 for salvage therapy). Neutrophil recovery had a significant role in the response to initial (but not salvage) antifungal therapy. Conclusions: Our retrospective analysis identified key diagnostic and treatment characteristics, and this understanding could improve the management of hematological malignancy patients with IA. © 2012.

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