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Hospital de Órbigo, Spain

Oberg K.,Uppsala University Hospital | Castellano D.,University Hospital 12 Of Octubre
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2011

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) consist of a heterogeneous group of malignancies with various clinical presentations and growth rates. The incidence has been estimated to 2.5-5 per 100,000 people per year and prevalence of 35 per 100,000. The largest group is the gastroenteropancreatic NETs. Small intestinal NETs are the most common followed by pancreatic NETs in the gastrointestinal tract. A classification system (World Health Organization) was established in year 2000 and recently updated in 2010, taking into consideration the histopathology and tumor biology of the tumors. To further refine the classification a "tumor node metastasis" staging has been suggested by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society. The same organization has also proposed a grading system (G1, G2, and G3). The diagnosis of a NET is based on histopathology on tumor specimens, circulating biomarkers as well as imaging. Traditional radiology, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, is still the basis but is complemented with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and positron emission tomography with specific isotopes such 68Ga-DOTA-octreotate, F18-dopamine, or C11-5 hydroxytryptamine. Molecular imaging will increase in importance in the near future. There is still an unmet need for more sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis and follow-up. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Castellano D.,University Hospital 12 Of Octubre | Castellano D.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | Salazar R.,University of Barcelona | Raymond E.,Beaujon University Hospital
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2011

In the last 30 years the incidence and prevalence of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) has increased substantially. This could be partly due to improvements in diagnostic imaging, which lead to the incidental diagnosis of asymptomatic cases. However, despite these improvements, patients typically experience long delays before they are diagnosed. In this review, we discuss both the limitations and advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis, molecular and cellular biology, diagnosis, classification, staging, and treatment of GEP-NETs in order to identify which factors could be contributing to the delay in diagnosis and timely treatment of these patients. Within this context, the results from the most relevant clinical trials the available targeted therapies for the treatment of GEP-NETs, such as the "RAD001 in Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors," will be discussed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Raymond E.,University Paris Diderot | Hobday T.,Rochester College | Castellano D.,University Hospital 12 Of Octubre | Reidy-Lagunes D.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 2 more authors.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2011

Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) show limited sensitivity to cytotoxic agents, requiring the search for novel therapies. Recently, data from a phase III trial demonstrated that sunitinib produces a clinically significant improvement in progression-free survival in patients with unresectable, advanced, or metastatic GEP-NETs. Based on this finding, sunitinib became the first targeted drug approved for the treatment of GEP-NETs, paving the way for the approval of other anticancer agents in this drug-orphan disease. To date, results of trials involving other multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as sorafenib, the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitors, have also shown promising results, and some are already being studied in phase III trials. This review updates the results of ongoing trials using inhibitors of growth factors and tyrosine kinase receptors involved in the carcinogenesis of GEP-NETs. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Faivre S.,Beaujon University Hospital | Castellano D.,University Hospital 12 Of Octubre | Strosberg J.,Moffit Cancer Center | Gonzalez E.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Of Las Nieves | Salazar R.,ICO Hospital Duran i Reynals
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2014

The systemic management of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors includes chemotherapy and targeted agents such as everolimus and sunitinib. Which treatment to favor in a particular patient is not known. The most commonly used chemotherapy agents are streptozocin and temozolamide, often prescribed in combination with fluoropyrimidines. A potential biomarker for selection of temozolomide-based chemotherapy is O-6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltrasferase expression. Chemotherapy yields higher response rates and may be preferable in patients with higher-grade tumors and those who are symptomatic. The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus has shown improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) in a robust, well-conducted phase III study. Everolimus, however, can induce limiting toxicities that may result in treatment discontinuation and does not improve survival. However, the objective response rate is very low. Sunitinib, likewise, increases PFS but the data comes from a smaller trial which was terminated early. Sunitinib displays a different toxicity profile and is associated with a trend towards improved overall survival. It is clear that biomarkers to properly select the most effective agents in an individual patient are needed. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Gravalos C.,University Hospital 12 Of Octubre | Cassinello J.,University of Guadalajara | Garcia-Alfonso P.,University Hospital of Gregrorio Maranon | Jimeno A.,Aurora University
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2010

Conventional chemotherapy increases progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients versus best supportive care (BSC). However, the efficacy of chemotherapy is limited. Recently approved monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) have a different mechanism of action, targeting growth factors or their receptors. Panitumumab is a fully human IgG2 MoAb directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In phase II trials, panitumumab showed preliminary activity in chemorefractory mCRC. This efficacy was confirmed in a randomized pivotal phase III trial, which compared single-agent panitumumab plus BSC versus BSC alone. Several ongoing clinical trials are evaluating panitumumab in combination with different chemotherapy regimens in first- and second-line settings. Skin toxicities, hypomagnesemia, and diarrhea are the most common adverse events associated with anti-EGFR therapy. KRAS status and skin rash have been correlated with panitumumab efficacy. This article reviews the preclinical and pharmacokinetics data, activity and tolerance of panitumumab in mCRC patients. Potential predictive factors of response are also discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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