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Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2011.2.3 | Award Amount: 3.44M | Year: 2012

Through development and scale up activities on materials and reactors for the integration of advanced biomass steam gasification and syngas purification processes, UNIfHY aims to obtain continuous pure hydrogen production from biomass, increase well-to-tank efficiency and contribute to a sustainable energy portfolio, exploiting results achieved in past R&D EU projects on hot gas catalytic conditioning. The project is based on the utilization of plant components of proven performance and reliability and well established processes (UNIQUE coupled gasification and gas conditioning technology, Water-Gas Shift, WGS, system and Pressure Swing Adsorption, PSA, system), thus targeting up to 20 years plant durability with availability>95%. The project benefits from the already existing laboratories and UNIQUE gasifiers in order to maximize results (technology development at process-, system- and industrial-scale) with minimum risk and budget requirement (laboratories, pilot and industrial gasifier already available). New materials for atmospheric pressure WGS are realized and utilized to develop reactors, integrated with a tailored PSA in a portable purification unit, connected downstream small-to-medium scale (up to 1 MWth) UNIQUE gasifiers in order to yield pure hydrogen. The result will be two UNIfHY prototype units for continuous production of hydrogen (up to 500 kg/day). Thanks to the high level of thermal integration and to the reuse of purge gas in the process, conversion efficiency in hydrogen higher than 70% is expected. Finally, the gas conditioning system cost becomes 30% as that of a standard free-standing conditioning system, due to remarkable plant integration: reforming of both tar and methane and particulates abatement is carried out directly in the freeboard of the biomass gasifier, providing investment cost savings greater than 50%, a simplified plant layout with reduction of space and components up to 50% and a hydrogen production cost not exceeding 4/kg.

Monaco A.,University Guglielmo Marconi Telematica | Di Matteo U.,University Guglielmo Marconi Telematica
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

The LCA is a method enabling the performance of a complete study on the environmental impacts of the product, taking into consideration all its life cycle ("from the cradle to the tomb" or, better "from the cradle to the cradle" when also the maximum recycling/reusing of the materials is provided. There are many procedures to perform an LCA of the consumers' products. In particular, the SUMMA method (Sustainability Multi-criteria Multi-scale Assessment) allows obtaining a number of indices of efficiency and environmental sustainability which make the LCA assessment much more complete and significant. LCA method often represents the basis for an additional assessment of industrial products and processes, the LCC (Life Cycle Costing) which, allowing the association of economic variables to any phase of the life cycle, represents a useful tool for financial planning and management. The case study analysed in the present work concerns an LCA analysis, using the SUMMA method and the LCC of one small size molten carbonate fuel cell, 2.5 kW, assembled in the Fuel Cells Laboratory within the Educational Pole of Terni at the Università degli Studi di Perugia. For sake of completeness of the results, the methods Ecoindicator99 and Impact2002 + were used in the analysis, as implemented in the used calculation software, the SimaPro 7.1 by PR Consultants. From the registered results, it emerges that the environmental energy sustainability of the analysed element enables its widespread and in-depth employment in the phase subsequent to the optimisation of the connected economic frame; the scenarios opened by the present work envisage great margins of improvements of said aspects in the future experiments. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights.

Castellani F.,University of Perugia | Piccioni E.,University of Perugia | Biondic L.,University Guglielmo Marconi Telematica | Marconi M.,University Guglielmo Marconi Telematica
Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization and Simulation of Energy Conversion Systems and Processes, ECOS 2012 | Year: 2012

Wind energy conversion technology is by now fully developed on an industrial scale; commercial wind turbines capacity factors have reached very good values and now the scientific community is engaged in understanding in details all the phenomena which can affect the power performances of an aerogenerator. Among them atmospheric stability is still not well investigated comparing to others environmental conditions; this is partially due to the low incidence of non-neutral conditions on the actual productive periods. Usually the wind energy assessment studies were generally performed referring to neutral stability; this was considered acceptable because neutral conditions prevail on the high wind situations. Anyway, especially on coastal and offshore sites, stability can induce meaningful effect on power production both directly on the net power output and on the wakes. The wind energy industry is now producing wind turbines with a high ratio of the rotor surface by the nominal power; in this way producing energy even with low wind regimes and non-neutral conditions can involve significant periods. In such situations the variations of the vertical wind shear can affect the energy production and it could be fundamental to investigate how atmospheric stability can affect the overall power conversion efficiency. In present work the effect of atmospheric stability was investigated analysing the production data of a small wind farm operating in flat terrain in southern Italy; in the site only two turbines with a very high ratio of rotor surface by nominal power are operating under a low-medium wind regime. Results demonstrate that atmospheric stability can have a meaningful impact on power production especially for unstable conditions Furthermore a good overall agreement was discovered between the results from the experimental dataset and from numerical simulations of different thermal conditions through a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code and the actuator disc model.

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