Akershus, Norway

University Graduate Center

Akershus, Norway
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-ARTEMIS | Phase: SP1-JTI-ARTEMIS-2009-6 | Award Amount: 5.39M | Year: 2010


Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-3-1-IAPP | Award Amount: 1.92M | Year: 2008

The goal of our Network is to address the full development chain of Compact Modeling (CM) of advanced CMOS and III-V technologies, from the technology level to the system level. Our mission is driven by the need to enhance scientific knowledge, transfer scientific and technological knowledge from academia to industry, to strengthen the European integrated circuit (IC) industry with powerful design automation methodologies and to achieve integration of European research in a fragmented area for the benefit of both young and experienced researchers.

Lawrence P.M.,Stony Brook University Medical Center | Lawrence P.M.,University Graduate Center | Studholme K.M.,Stony Brook University Medical Center
Journal of Comparative Neurology | Year: 2014

The laboratory mouse is increasingly a subject for visual system investigation, but there has been no comprehensive evaluation of this species' visual projections. Here, projections were visualized and mapped following intraocular injection of cholera toxin B subunit. Tissue was processed using standard procedures applied to 30 μm free-floating sections with diaminobenzidine as the chromogen. The mouse retina projects to ~46 brain regions, including 14 not previously described in this species. These include two amygdaloid nuclei, the horizontal limb of the diagonal band, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, several visual thalamic nuclei, the paranigral nucleus, several pretectal nuclei, and the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus. Dense retinal patches were also observed in a narrow portion of the ipsilateral intermediate layer of the superior colliculus. The superior fasciculus of the accessory optic tract, which innervates the medial terminal nucleus, was also determined to be a terminal zone throughout its length. The results are compared with previous descriptions of projections from mouse intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells, and with data from the hamster, Nile grass rat, and laboratory rat. The retinal projection patterns are similar in all four species, although there are many differences with respect to the details. The specific visual functions of most retinorecipient areas are unknown, but there is substantial convergence of retinal projections onto regions concerned with olfaction and audition. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3733-3753, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Tzoneva G.,University Graduate Center | Ferrando A.A.,Columbia University
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2012

NOTCH1 receptor signaling plays a central role in T-cell lineage specification and in supporting the growth and proliferation of immature T-cell progenitors in the thymus during lymphoid development. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), a tumor resulting from the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors, aberrant and constitutively active NOTCH1 signaling triggered by activating mutations in the NOTCH1 gene contributes to oncogenic transformation and is a hallmark of this disease. Most notably, small molecule γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) can effectively block NOTCH1 signaling in T-ALL, and could be exploited as a targeted therapy in this disease. In addition, a number of emerging anti-NOTCH therapeutic strategies including anti-NOTCH1 inhibitory antibodies, small peptide inhibitors of NOTCH signaling and combination therapies with GSIs and glucocorticoids, have recently been proposed. Finally, the identification of NOTCH1 mutations in solid tumors and chronic lymphocytic leukemias has increased even further the clinical relevance of NOTCH signaling as a therapeutic target in human cancer. Here we review our current understanding of NOTCH1-induced transformation, the mechanisms of action of oncogenic NOTCH1 in T-ALL and the therapeutic and prognostic implications of NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Bhatnagar M.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Hjorungnes A.,University Graduate Center
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2011

Decode-and-forward (DF) protocol based cooperative communication is vulnerable to the erroneous relaying by the relay. In this paper, we derive a maximum-likelihood (ML) decoder for the DF protocol utilizing arbitrary complex-valued constellations including M-PSK, M-PAM, and M-QAM. A set-up of a single pair of source and destination with one relay is studied. The source and the relay utilize orthogonal uncoded transmissions. The relay performs ML decoding and forwards the decoded symbol to the destination, and it might commit errors in decoding the data. The ML decoder at the destination is obtained by maximizing the probability density function (p.d.f.) of the data received during two orthogonal transmissions at the destination under the assumption that the average probability of error of the source-relay link is known at the destination. The proposed ML decoder is a generalized decoder which is applicable to arbitrary constellations, whereas, one existing DF cooperative decoder is applicable to the real valued constellations like BPSK and M-PAM. One existing decoder is also applicable to M 2-QAM constellations. We also derive a low-complexity piecewise linear (PL) decoder for arbitrary complex-valued M-point constellations which performs similar to the ML decoder for all signal-to-noise ratio values. An approximate expression of the symbol error rate (SER) of the PL decoder for M-PSK constellation is derived. By using the approximate SER expressions, it is proved that the proposed ML and PL decoders achieve full diversity of two in the cooperative system studied. © 2011 IEEE.

Competitive foods in schools have historically been scrutinized for their ubiquity and poor nutritional quality, leading many states to enact legislation limiting the availability and accessibility of these items. Evaluations of these policy approaches show their promise in improving the healthfulness of school food environments, considered an important strategy for reducing childhood obesity. Yet little is known about the decision-making processes by which such legislation is formed and adopted. Using a comparative case study design, this study describes and analyzes the policy formation processes surrounding five state-level competitive food bills introduced in 2009-2010. Data for each case were drawn from multiple key informant interviews and document reviews. Case studies were conducted, analyzed, and written independently using a standard protocol and were subsequently compared for recurring and unique themes. Abbreviated case studies and summary tables are provided. Results indicate that bill cost is a major barrier to achieving strong, health-promoting policy change. Additionally, findings reveal that supporters of stronger competitive food policies often concede to changes that weaken a bill in order to neutralize opposition and achieve stakeholder buy-in. These challenges suggest that continued research on the development, implementation, and evaluation of public health policies can contribute to the advancement of new strategies for effective health promotion. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

Yang G.,New York University | Lai C.S.W.,New York University | Cichon J.,New York University | Ma L.,New York University | And 3 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014

How sleep helps learning and memory remains unknown. We report in mouse motor cortex that sleep after motor learning promotes the formation of postsynaptic dendritic spines on a subset of branches of individual layer V pyramidal neurons. New spines are formed on different sets of dendritic branches in response to different learning tasks and are protected from being eliminated when multiple tasks are learned. Neurons activated during learning of a motor task are reactivated during subsequent non- rapid eye movement sleep, and disrupting this neuronal reactivation prevents branch-specific spine formation. These findings indicate that sleep has a key role in promoting learning-dependent synapse formation and maintenance on selected dendritic branches, which contribute to memory storage.

Sasirekha B.,University Graduate Center
EXCLI Journal | Year: 2013

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Current knowledge on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is essential for appropriate therapy. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial strains, with special reference to ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase and MRSA production. A total of 325 clinical isolates were collected from UTI patients from various tertiary care hospitals over a period of 6 months (June 2011 to December 2011). The antimicrobial susceptibility to various drugs was studied by the disc diffusion method as guided by CLSI guidelines. Confirmation of the extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β- lactamase and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) production was done by an E-test respectively. Of the 325 isolates, 225 were characterized as gram negative and 77 isolates as S. aureus isolates. The majority (69.3 %) of the isolates were from females compared to males (30.7 %). Prevalence of ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase and the coexistence of the phenotype (ESBL+ AmpC β-lactamase) and MRSA in the urinary isolates were found to be 48.9 %, 20.4 %, 6.2 % and 27.5 % respectively. Ampicillin/sulbactam, norfloxacin should be no longer considered as first line of drugs for UTI, because of high resistance. Parentral drugs such as aminoglycosides, carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactum can be the alternative choice for complicated UTI. Also, control measures such as judicious use of antibiotics, formulation of infection committee may control the spread of resistance.

Ulversoy T.,University Graduate Center
IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials | Year: 2010

Software Defined Radio (SDR) may provide flexible, upgradeable and longer lifetime radio equipment for the military and for civilian wireless communications infrastructure. SDR may also provide more flexible and possibly cheaper multi-standard-terminals for end users. It is also important as a convenient base technology for the future context-sensitive, adaptive and learning radio units referred to as cognitive radios. SDR also poses many challenges, however, some of them causing SDR to evolve slower than otherwise anticipated. Transceiver development challenges include size, weight and power issues such as the required computing capacity, but also SW architectural challenges such as waveform application portability. SDR has demanding implications for regulators, security organizations and business developers. © 2010 IEEE.

Methods for derivatizing the surface of a substrate having a plurality of thiol groups thereon are disclosed herein. The method can include reacting the thiol groups with an o-quinone methide, which can optionally be generated by irradiating an o-quinone methide precursor compound. In some embodiments, the method can advantageously be reversible. Exemplary o-quinone methides having a cyclic alkyne attached thereto, and precursor compounds for generating such compounds, are also disclosed herein.

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