Saint-Louis, Senegal

University Gaston Berger
Saint-Louis, Senegal

Gaston Berger University , or L'Université Gaston Berger , located some 12 km outside Saint-Louis, was the second university established in Senegal . Originally the University of Saint-Louis, it was renamed for Gaston Berger, an important French-Senegalese philosopher, on December 4, 1996. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.2.1.5-1 | Award Amount: 4.40M | Year: 2010

The social and economic impact of natural disasters in emerging economies and developing countries is growing. Many African countries have fragile economies unable to absorb the shocks caused by natural disasters enhanced by the increasing vulnerability of rapidly expanding urban areas. Climate change is likely to rapidly exacerbate this situation. The overall objective of CLUVA is to develop methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to manage climate risks, to reduce vulnerabilities and to improve coping capacity and resilience towards climate changes. CLUVA will explore these issues in selected African cities (Addis Ababa, Dar es Salaam, Douala, Ougadougou, St.Louis). The project aims at improving the capacity of scientific institutions, local councils and civil society to cope with climate change. CLUVA will assess the environmental, social and economic impacts and the risks of climate change induced hazards expected to affect urban areas (floods, sea-level rise, storm surges, droughts, heat waves, desertification, storms and fires) at various time frames. The project will develop innovative climate change risk adaptation strategies based on strong interdisciplinary components. CLUVA will be conducted by a balanced partnership of European and African partners. The 7 European partners will bring together some of EUs leading experts in climate, quantitative hazard and risk assessment, risk management, urban planners and social scientists. The 6 African partners from South Africa and from the Universities of the selected cities cover a similar range of expertises, making possible an effective integrated research effort. The project is structured in 6 WorkPackages dealing with climate change and impact models (WP1), multiple vulnerability (WP2), urban planning and governance as key issues to increase the resilience (WP3), capacity building and dissemination (WP4), coordination of the activities in the selected cities (WP5) and project management (WP6).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-39-2015 | Award Amount: 2.80M | Year: 2016

The WAZIUP project, namely the Open Innovation Platform for IoT-Big Data in Sub-Saharan Africa is a collaborative research project using cutting edge technology applying IoT and Big Data to improve the working conditions in the rural ecosystem of Sub-Saharan Africa. First, WAZIUP operates by involving farmers and breeders in order to define the platform specifications in focused validation cases. Second, while tackling challenges which are specific to the rural ecosystem, it also engages the flourishing ICT ecosystem in those countries by fostering new tools and good practices, entrepreneurship and start-ups. Aimed at boosting the ICT sector, WAZIUP proposes solutions aiming at long term sustainability. The consortium of WAZIUP involves 7 partners from 4 African countries and partners from 5 EU countries combining business developers, technology experts and local Africa companies operating in agriculture and ICT. The project involves also regional hubs with the aim to promote the results to the widest base in the region.

Drame F.M.,University Gaston Berger | Foley E.E.,Clark University
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2015

In Senegal, recent data indicates that the HIV epidemic is increasingly driven by concurrent sexual partners among men and women in stable relationships. In order to respond to this changing epidemiological profile in Senegal, multi-lateral and national AIDS actors require information about these emerging trends in unstudied populations. To that end, this study has several objectives, first, to assess local dynamics of sexual behaviors among individuals at popular socializing venues in areas at increased risk of HIV transmission; and then to examine how particular venues may influence risks of HIV transmission. In 2013 we collected data at 314 venues in 10 cities in Senegal using PLACE methodology. These venues were listed with collaboration of 374 community informants. They are places where commercial sex workers, MSM, and individuals who are not part of any identified risk group socialize and meet new sexual partners. We conducted 2600 interviews at the 96 most popular venues. A significant portion of the sample reports buying or selling sex and the majority engaged in behavior considered high-risk for transmitting sexual infections. Almost a quarter of patrons interviewed in venues were young people aged 15-24 years. Types of venues described were very diverse. Half of them were venues (n=156) where sex workers could be solicited and almost a third were venues where MSM could meet male partners (n=90). The study showed existing pockets of vulnerability to HIV in Thies, Bignona or Saly that are not evident from aggregate HIV data. These early findings suggest links between risky behaviors and type of venue on the one hand and type of city on the other hand. Finally, these findings offer complementary insight to existing studies of HIV vulnerability in Senegal and support a case for venue-based interventions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Foley E.E.,Clark University | Drame F.M.,University Gaston Berger
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2013

This paper examines transactional sex in Dakar as a window into broader processes of social and economic change in urban Senegal. Patterns of heterosexual behaviour in Senegal's capital (late and increasing age at first marriage for women, a relatively high divorce rate and a rise in transactional sex) reflect a confluence of socioeconomic forces that curtail some forms of heterosexual union and facilitate others. Our analysis focuses on the rise of mbaraan, a practice in which single, married and divorced women have multiple male partners. We argue that while mbaraan is in part an expression of women's agency and a transgression of dominant gender norms, it also reflects women's social and economic subordination and their inability to achieve self-sufficiency independent of men's financial support. We suggest that this urban phenomenon is the outcome of contradictory opportunities and constraints that women face as they grapple with material insecurity and marital disappointments. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Diagne A.,University Gaston Berger | Bastin G.,Catholic University of Louvain | Coron J.-M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Automatica | Year: 2012

Explicit boundary dissipative conditions are given for the exponential stability in L2-norm of one-dimensional linear hyperbolic systems of balance laws ∂tξ+Λ ∂xξ-Mξ=0 over a finite interval, when the matrix M is marginally diagonally stable. The result is illustrated with an application to boundary feedback stabilisation of open channels represented by linearised SaintVenantExner equations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Payan C.,University Gaston Berger | Garnier V.,University Gaston Berger | Moysan J.,University Gaston Berger
Cement and Concrete Research | Year: 2010

Nonlinear interaction of a monochromatic elastic wave with a low frequency should be a good tool for non-destructive evaluation of existing concrete structures. Nonlinear indicators have already proved efficient in detecting global damage by exhibiting a significant sensitivity regarding classical linear ultrasonic methods like wave speed or attenuation. However, it is necessary to understand the influence of some structural parameters such as porosity, stress state, or water saturation on the nonlinear processes. In this way, a recent model containing all of these potential contributors is presented in this paper. It is sustained by nonlinear interaction experiments in impact mode. This method reveals a great potential for in situ measurements with a low frequency propagating into the whole structure. We make use of a calibrated concrete sample's series, conditioned at different water saturation states, to quantify the influence of water content and porosity on the nonlinear response of concrete. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

El Korchi A.,University Gaston Berger | Millet D.,SUPMECA Toulon
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2011

Remanufacturing end-of-life products requires setting up an economically and environmentally viable reverse logistics channel for supplying reusable used modules to the production chain. This paper introduces a framework to allow generating and assessing different reverse logistics channel structures. The framework is then applied to a product remanufacturing case. We analyze the current reverse logistics channel structure and propose alternative structures with less environmental impact and higher economic benefits. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Drame F.M.,University Gaston Berger
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2013

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened by HIV in Senegal, across sub-Saharan Africa and throughout the world. This is driven in part by stigma, and limits health achievements and social capital among these populations. To date, there is a limited understanding of the feasibility of prospective HIV prevention studies among MSM in Senegal, including HIV incidence and cohort retention rates. One hundred and nineteen men who reported having anal sex with another man in the past 12 months were randomly selected from a sampling frame of 450 unique members of community groups serving MSM in Dakar. These men were enrolled in a 15-month pilot cohort study implemented by a community-based partner. The study included a structured survey instrument and biological testing for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B virus at two time points. Baseline HIV prevalence was 36.0% (43/114), with cumulative HIV prevalence at study end being 47.2% (51/108). The annualized incidence rate was 16% (8/40 at risk for seroconversion over 15 months of follow-up, 95% confidence interval 4.6-27.4%). Thirty-seven men were lost to follow up, including at least four deaths. Men who were able to confide in someone about health, emotional distress and sex were less likely to be HIV positive (OR 0.36, p < 0.05, 95% CI 0.13, 0.97). High HIV prevalence and incidence, as well as mortality in this young population of Senegalese MSM indicate a public health emergency. Moreover, given the high burden of HIV and rate of incident HIV infections, this population appears to be appropriate for the evaluation of novel HIV prevention, treatment and care approaches. Using a study implemented by community-based organizations, there appears to be feasibility in implementing interventions addressing the multiple levels of HIV risk among MSM in this setting. However, low retention across arms of this pilot intervention, and in the cohort, will need to be addressed for larger-scale efficacy trials to be feasible.

Hamdi S.,Montpellier SupAgro | Moyano F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Sall S.,IRD Montpellier | Sall S.,University Gaston Berger | And 2 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration is a main factor determining the response of global terrestrial soil carbon to global warming and, consequently, its feedback on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. A data synthesis was performed to summarize information available in the literature on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration obtained in laboratory soil incubations and expressed as Q10. The influence of common experimental variables and methods, i.e. range of incubation temperatures, length of incubation, calculation methods, and amounts of soil organic carbon, was analyzed.We found a small but significant difference between the Q10 values calculated with different experimental methods as well as time-related trends showing an initial decrease followed by stable values. Q10 values ranged from 0.5 to over 300 and were negatively correlated with temperature, but only at the range of temperatures below 25 °C. A similar dependence of the activation energy (derived from the Arrhenius equation) with temperature was observed. A negative relationship with total organic carbon content of soils was found in forest and grassland ecosystems, with an average decrease in Q10 of 0.02 mgC g-1 soil, explaining their slightly lower mean Q10s compared to cultivated soils. Because most of the observed variability remained unexplained, we emphasize the need for new approaches in future studies to the problem of understanding the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ba C.,University Gaston Berger
Proceedings - 2016 IEEE International Conference on Web Services, ICWS 2016 | Year: 2016

The Service Oriented Computing Paradigm proposes the construction of applications by integrating preexistent services. In recent times, automated business processes and web services have become ubiquitous. In this paper1, we propose the automation of service composition that takes the abstract specification of a composition and the definition of concrete services. We make a reduction from this rewriting problem to exact cover problem, represented by a bipartite graph. We present a program analysis and experimental results to show the efficiency of our proposed mechanism. © 2016 IEEE.

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