Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008.3.1.3.1. | Award Amount: 9.44M | Year: 2009
The first work package will define a common vision on zero-waste entrepreneurship within the first 6 months. The mythos Individual Producer Responsibility will be investigated if it can become the all-healing-solution in electronics industry as well as how this concept can be applied to other industrial sectors. WP2 concentrates on new technological developments, WP3 on waste prevention methodologies and strategies and WP4 will adapt existing software tools supporting waste prevention. All this knowledge will be then formalised into an innovative production model for resource-use optimisation and waste prevention in WP5. This preparatory work will enable the 9 industrial case studies in Work package 6 that forms the core of the ZeroWIN project with more than half of the total budget. These case studies will be used to prove that the ZeroWIN approach can meet at least 2 of the stringent targets of the call. WP7 closely monitors and validates the improvements by quantitative assessment. WP 8 investigates the implications to policy and formulates recommendations. Finally WP9 will disseminate the results of ZeroWIN as broad as possible and WP10 ensures the efficient operation of the ZeroWIN project. By concentrating on industrial networks in the automotive, construction, electronics and photovoltaic industries ZeroWIN will address nearly 3 million companies (of which 80% are SMEs) with more than 2,8 trillion turnover and a value creation of more than 800 billion with more than 20 million employees creating about 40% or more than 400 million tons of industrial waste using as much as 50% of all materials extracted from the earths crust generating about 40% of all energy use and about 35% of all greenhouse gas emissions. The ZeroWIN consortium has 29 partners from 10 countries (AT, DE, ES, FR, HU, IE, PL, PT, RO, UK), dominated by industry - 3 large companies (one of which is the electronics cluster in the Basque region) and 13 SMEs.
News Article | March 23, 2016
Circularity is at the core of eco-design, the production methodology in which waste is repurposed and environmental impacts such as raw-material use are reduced through reuse and recycling. But if that loop is a lasso for reining in excess, the reality — as US philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote in the industrializing 1840s — remains that “Things are in the saddle,/And ride mankind”. The scale of global waste and its proportionate economic and environmental costs is gargantuan. Some 269,000 tonnes of plastic litter the world's oceans, and vast industrial cast-offs such as manure lagoons and slag heaps blight landscapes. What lurks beneath is daunting. Landfill swallows much domestic and construction waste, where residual energy is lost and decomposition under anaerobic conditions creates a stream of problematic subwaste, from the powerful greenhouse gas methane to leachable contaminants such as benzene. The United States sends 40% of its food to landfill and discards 70–80% of the 145 million tonnes of construction and demolition debris that it generates each year — even though much of the wood, metal and minerals is recyclable. In 2012, Europe sent almost half of its 2.3 billion tonnes of waste to landfill. And that is just stuff: up to 50% of industrial energy input becomes waste heat. Faced with this entrenched dynamic, how can closed-loop systems become the norm? One answer is to integrate them into circular economies — wheels within wheels. This model looks to extend the life of products at the 'use' stage, retaining value and designing out harmful by-products such as toxic substances, to create the perfect habitat for ecologically innovative companies. For a model that slots so neatly into eco-thinking, the circular economy is a surprisingly venerable concept. In 1966, economist Kenneth Boulding hatched the idea of “a stable, closed-cycle, high-level technology” in his seminal paper 'The economics of the coming spaceship Earth' (see Nature 527, 443–444; 2015). Five years later, in a Life magazine interview, systems theorist R. Buckminster Fuller — an advocate of 'more with less' design from the 1920s — declared that pollution “is nothing but resources we're not harvesting. We allow them to disperse because we've been ignorant of their value.” That year also saw the publication of Design for the Real World (Pantheon), an influential manifesto by Viennese educator (and ally of Fuller) Victor Papanek, who inveighed against designers creating “whole species of permanent garbage to clutter up the landscape” and called for a socially inclusive, environmentally responsible design ethic. The 1970s saw significant practical developments. US landscape architect John T. Lyle pioneered 'regenerative design' focused on local, renewable resource use. Swiss architect Walter Stahel (see page 435) codified existing ideas and developed key new ones as principles for his Product-Life Institute in Geneva in the 1980s. More recently, German chemist Michael Braungart and US architect William McDonough (who had collaborated with Lyle) established the product and system certification Cradle to Cradle (a coinage of Stahel's), which treats industrial flows as metabolic and waste as nutrients ( et al. Nature 494, 172–175; 2013). Their book Cradle to Cradle (North Point) was published in 2002. Such design revolutions are essentially longitudinal collaborations between generations, as historian of technology Walter Isaacson has revealed ( Nature 514, 32–33; 2014). Meanwhile, eco-design has moved on from the isolated gizmos and warranties of the 1970s, such as Germany's 'life cycle' eco-label, Blue Angel. New ventures are designing circularity in from the off, as the case studies here demonstrate. Enterra in Vancouver, Canada, recycles unsold organic food to feed fly larvae, which it then harvests as livestock feed (see 'Transform waste into protein'). AeroFarms in Newark, New Jersey, grows up to 4 million kilograms of baby leafy greens a year in vertical indoor 'fields', without pesticides and using 95% less water than in field farming. A number of grand old companies are retrofitting circularity. BAM Construct UK (of the Dutch Royal BAM Group, founded in 1869) focuses on disassembly — ensuring that the raw materials it uses are either interchangeable or easily separated, and that components can be dismantled (see 'Design for deconstruction'). UK aerospace-engine powerhouse Rolls-Royce plc has cut raw-material use, cost and emissions through its recycling programme, Revert (see 'Create consistent supply systems'), which emphasizes 'power by the hour' and remanufacturing. Academia and governments are also waking up to circular thinking, from China (see page 440) to Europe. British sailor and circumnavigator Ellen MacArthur aims to speed the transition through her eponymous foundation in Cowes, UK, which has synthesized existing knowledge to educate on, and catalyse innovation towards, the circular economy, collaborating energetically with businesses as well as design and engineering universities. On board are Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands; the University of Bradford, UK, which established the first circular-economy master's degree in 2013; and, under a fellowship with the philanthropic US Schmidt Family Foundation in Boca Raton, Florida, a consortium of 12 universities including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Tongji University in Shanghai, China, the Indian National Institute of Design in Ahmedabad and Imperial College London. Collectively, all this constitutes a great deal more than a gleam in Buckminster Fuller's eye. Yet if the circular economy is an ecosystem for green innovation, it is primarily an island one: wildlife corridors are few. No city, region or country has embraced the vision fully. And the urbanizing, consuming and wasting world does not stand still: the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development estimates that the global middle class (with all its material hankerings and 'disposable' income) will swell to 4.9 billion by 2030 (from 1.8 billion in 2009). Meanwhile, the evolving industrial worldscape — a welter of start-ups, monocultures and multinationals, most clinging to business-as-usual — contributes a dynamic unpredictability. There are problems, too, with the circular model itself. Martin Charter, director of the Centre for Sustainable Design at the University for the Creative Arts in Farnham, UK, notes a “lack of overall clarity over the concept. Perhaps just 100 companies worldwide have adopted a true circularity mindset as a core strategy.” As for the circular mantra of switching to the digital, data centres waste an average of 90% of the energy that they consume (30 billion watts, equivalent to the output of 30 nuclear power plants) and account for 17% of technology's carbon footprint. Although the circular 'business case' looks remarkable (global management consultants McKinsey and Company estimate that it could add US$2.6 trillion to the European economy by 2030), the fact that business remains central to the vision is a vulnerability. The growth economy impedes sustainability. In 2014, for instance, Chevron and a number of other big oil companies retreated from investments in renewables because of poor returns. Business competitiveness and 'disruption' can hinder the collaboration that is central to eco-design. UK design engineer Chris Wise has noted that the practice of using 'least materials' is at odds with the construction industry's prime aim of selling more materials ( et al. Nature 494, 172–175; 2013). The 'rebound effect', in which designed efficiency leads to greater use or consumption, is a related conundrum. The thirteenth-century artist Giotto reportedly proved his genius by drawing a perfect circle. The cycles of the biosphere, from water to soil, are wonders of economy. So the idea of a circle strikes a deep chord in us. But one look at any large city reveals disconnection, pollution and social inequality. Can we square the circular economy?
Agency: GTR | Branch: AHRC | Program: | Phase: Fellowship | Award Amount: 78.17K | Year: 2012
Soft Estate: Exhibition Proposal by Edward Chell, under the highlight notice Care for the Future: Thinking Forward through the Past Soft Estate is the term used by the Highways Agency to describe the natural habitats that line our motorways and trunk roads, (some 30,000 hectares of land nationally). Whilst roads play a major role in opening up land for housing and economic development, their attendant verges offer a genuine refuge for wildlife and a modern form of wilderness in the midst of intense urbanisation and agro-chemical farming. Our road network, the site of some of our most carbon-intensive activity, is flanked by Britains largest unofficial nature reserve. The principal subject of this practice-led research is to visually investigate these under-represented areas of roadside wilderness, both as ecological and metaphorical spaces and as reflectors of the complex and changing relationships between travel, the environment and landscape imagery within British culture. In framing this research I will draw on the English Landscape and picturesque tradition of the 18th Century, which informs popular understanding of landscape even today. While early tourists travelled to areas such as The Lakes to capture images of wild places, in todays countryside uncontrolled wilderness only springs up in the margins of our transport networks and the semi-derelict grid plans of industrialised corridors. I believe these Edgelands invite a new kind of tourist, new ways of looking and new forms of visual representation. In drawing on the landscape tradition, and capturing details of the flora and fauna of the verge, my work will engage viewers with landscapes that appear familiar and uncanny, traditional and strangely futuristic. Equipped with a Claude Glass, the 18th C tourist would capture particular views and aesthetically tame them. Today, for instance, the rear view mirrors of automobiles have an equivalent framing effect and would inform images conjured from a contemporary perspective. Modern motorway design incorporates Clothoid or transition curves, features that focus drivers attention so that they stay alert. These have the effect of smoothing the landscape reminiscent of eighteenth century parks, where curved carriage drives managed the experience of the landscape. Motorways arguably represent the modern equivalent of the spectacular re-sculpting of the landscape undertaken by Capability Brown. This was not without its picturesque opponents. Tour writer and landowner Uvedale Price rejected Browns projects, describing them as levelling, Price no doubt being aware of the political ramifications of the term. These verges are powerful signifiers of environmental degradation, urban development and our increasing separation and alienation from the land itself and at the same time, of optimistic progress. Roads open up access to landscapes they despoil. Through drawing on the picturesque tradition in making this work, I aim to open up new ways for people to visualize and connect with these landscapes. The resulting solo exhibition at Bluecoat Liverpool, Soft Estate, in 2013, will build on projects in which I exhibited work in Little Chef restaurants with a view to reaching a wider public and prompting reflection and debate on the travel choices we make and how these affect our environment. I am currently working towards a related parallel show across the local network of Little Chef restaurants to draw a wider audience to the Bluecoat and prompt reflection on travel and landscape. I have already established a good working relationship with writer and environmental campaigner, Marion Shoard, vice-chair of the British Association of Nature Conservationists (BANC). Her expertise in the area of land access and discarded land will provide a valuable sounding board to my researches and her contribution to the Bluecoat publication will provide a value added spin off to the project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS-2007-220.127.116.11-CT | Award Amount: 399.22K | Year: 2008
Although participation of civil society is considered crucial for the implementation of ambitious sustainability strategies like the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (EU SDS), many implementation programmes and activities do not yet consistently involve players from this field focusing more on business actors (ETAP) or researchers (SCORE). This project will address this gap by actively involving Civil Society Organisation to identify research needs and designing elements of deliberative processes on sustainable consumption and production in the demand areas food, housing and mobility. These deliberative processes can be defined as forums and mechanisms for involving stakeholders from civil society through information exchange, open discussions and continuous feedback on decision making on research agendas and political actions in the area sustainable consumption and production. The project will focus on three demand areas food, housing and mobility, that have been found to be responsible for 70 percentage of environmental damage in the EU. This approach also takes up the focus introduced in the new SCP Action Plan, that will focus on activities in these same three areas. During the project, three workshops will be organised in each demand areas, framed by an opening and a closing conference. An EU Strategy workshop will involve EC and EEA personnel to draw conclusions and plan follow-up actions. An online platform will host an ongoing and open dialogue. The project will last 18 months, the co-ordinator is the UNEP / Wuppertal Institute Collaborating Centre of Sustainable Consumption and Production (CSCP, Germany), and the partners are The Centre for Sustainable Design (CfSD, United Kingdom) and the Regional Environmental Center (REC Hungary). The partners bring their extensive experience both in organising participatory stakeholder processes and in working with political and academic stakeholders working on sustainable consumption and production.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-36-2016 | Award Amount: 3.05M | Year: 2017
Wearable technologies aimed at private consumers constitute a nascent market, expected to grow very fast. Their disruptive power is exemplified by the competition between established technology giants and start-ups. In particular, the development of the wearable market relies on its capacity to break down barriers between creative industries and digital technology companies. At the core of this market is the amount of data that wearable technologies allow to capture, in particular over their users personal data. This raises ethical issues regarding the ownership of this data, and what wearable providers do with that data, among other ethical issues, such as labour issues manufacturing, and mineral sourcing in the supply chain. There is a need to raise awareness around such issues, while ensuring the continued development of the wearable technology and smart textiles industries. WEAR proposes to bring wearable technology stakeholders to work more closely with designers and artists across Europe to shift the development of the EU wearable industry, drawing on the rich European landscape of wearable technology and smart textile stakeholders, toward addressing the core issues head on within the research & development stages. To do so, WEAR will: Develop a sustainable European network of stakeholders and hubs, to connect and push the boundaries in the design and development of wearables; Encourage cross-border and cross-sector collaboration between creative people and technology developers to design and develop wearables ; Develop a framework within which future prototypes can be made that will become the next generation of what ethical and aesthetic wearables could/should be; Lead the emergence of innovative approaches to design, production, manufacturing and business models for wearable technologies; Make citizens, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders more aware of the ethical and aesthetic issues in making and use of wearable technologies
Ransom N.,University for the Creative Arts |
Rafferty P.,Aberystwyth University
Journal of Documentation | Year: 2011
Purpose: This study aims to consider the value of user-assigned image tags by comparing the facets that are represented in image tags with those that are present in image queries to see if there is a similarity in the way that users describe and search for images. Design/methodology/approach: A sample dataset was created by downloading a selection of images and associated tags from Flickr, the online photo-sharing web site. The tags were categorised using image facets from Shatford's matrix, which has been widely used in previous research into image indexing and retrieval. The facets present in the image tags were then compared with the results of previous research into image queries. Findings: The results reveal that there are broad similarities between the facets present in image tags and queries, with people and objects being the most common facet, followed by location. However, the results also show that there are differences in the level of specificity between tags and queries, with image tags containing more generic terms and image queries consisting of more specific terms. The study concludes that users do describe and search for images using similar image facets, but that measures to close the gap between specific queries and generic tags would improve the value of user tags in indexing image collections. Originality/value: Research into tagging has tended to focus on textual resources with less research into non-textual documents. In particular, little research has been undertaken into how user tags compare to the terms used in search queries, particularly in the context of digital images. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Shyba L.,University for the Creative Arts
2015 IEEE Games Entertainment Media Conference, GEM 2015 | Year: 2015
The aim of this half-day workshop is to showcase and make use of smartphones as a new tool for designing games; notably smartphone cameras and filmmaking apps. The expected outcome of this session is the collaborative creation of a story for a serious game that incorporates elements of role-playing and adventure. The theme and characters of the gameplay will be determined by the participants at the workshop but will deal with a current social or political issue, enabling conference attendees to propose a variety of solutions to pressing national or international matters. The take-away for game developers is a new tool to tap into the smartphone camera's ubiquity and portability to document real life conflicts and to use this footage, or dramatizations, to construct storyboards or even fully fledged interactive movies and games. © 2015 IEEE.
Meechao K.,University for the Creative Arts
CAADRIA 2015 - 20th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia: Emerging Experiences in the Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecture | Year: 2015
At present in most architectural practices, the way architectural design is presented involves computer-aided design to describe architecture for different purposes. Digital media has been employed for a creative proposal to achieve efficient communication. Although architects conduct and navigate design information, communication can be more efficient if architects convey exact messages. This paper investigates the way that architects communicate with stakeholders exploring their needs, including in digital media design to suggest new approaches that exploit capability of digital interactive media and networking. There is a clear need for a design process that ensures accurate communication, where both professionals and stakeholders can interact while the architectural design process is in progress. All stakeholders, not just architects need to be able to navigate the process. Finding a communication system through a website or application is recommended for this study. © 2015 All rights reserved and published by The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong.
Shortt M.T.,University for the Creative Arts
Proceedings of the DigitalHeritage 2013 - Federating the 19th Int'l VSMM, 10th Eurographics GCH, and 2nd UNESCO Memory of the World Conferences, Plus Special Sessions fromCAA, Arqueologica 2.0 et al. | Year: 2013
My research explores how the human interaction of greeting can be analysed through a digital graphic visualisation process to reveal nonverbal dimensions such as personal space, touch and other movement patterns. Previous systems of visualization devised by anthropologists for the study of greetings have stopped short of using contemporary digital technology. I aim to show how the use of digital techniques such as stop motion video, vector animation and interactive programming in the documentation and analysis of human greetings can advance our understanding of culturally patterned behaviour. Such visual and interactive explanations of greetings also open up the possibility of historical preservation and mapping of cultural greetings and, potentially, other forms of human interaction. © 2013 IEEE.
Roworth-Stokes S.,University for the Creative Arts
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2011
This paper outlines the role of the Design Research Society (DRS) and explores some of the emerging trends in design research as a field of academic inquiry through its biennial conferences. In doing so it gives some insight into the areas of research which might inform future studies from a perspective of an organization that seeks to support the peer review process both directly and indirectly through conferences and events, journal editing, and as a nominating body for national and international research evaluation panels. © 2011 Product Development & Management Association.