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Kereselidze M.,Agricultural University of Georgia | Draganova S.,Institute of Soil Science | Pilarska D.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Pilarska D.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Linde A.,University for Sustainable Development
Sumarski List | Year: 2014

Isaria fumosorosea is a cosmopolitan fungal species with a large host range including insects which are economically important pests in agriculture and forestry. In the current study the susceptibility of two forest pests Lymantria monacha and L. dispar to an isolate of the fungus Isaria fumosorosea obtained from Hyphantria cunea and re-isolates from L. dispar, L. monacha and Dendrolimus pini was investigated under laboratory conditions. Newly molted third instar larvae of L. monacha and newly molted second, third and fourth instar larvae of L. dispar were inoculated with fungal conidia by various methods: Larvae of L. dispar were either dipped directly into the conidia suspension (1 × 108 conidia/ml), or indirect methods were applied - by surface contact of larvae with conidial suspensions (1 × 108, 1 × 109, 3 × 107, 3 × 108, or 4 × 108 conidia/ml) placed on filter paper discs in Petri dishes or by contact with oak leaves or larch needles dipped in conidia suspension. Larvae in control variants were treated with water. Mortality of larvae was checked daily for 20 days and the efficacy of the fungus was corrected with mortality in the control treatments. It was found that larvae of both Lymantria - species can be infected experimentally with Isaria fumosorosea. Similar corrected efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea for the third instars larvae of L. dispar (12.37 %) and for L. monacha (12.66 %) was found when 1 × 10 8 conidia/ml of the isolate from H. cunea was applied on filter paper. The highest corrected efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea for L. dispar larvae was 60.0 % when 1 × 109 conidia/ml of the isolate from H. cunea was applied on filter paper. A corrected efficacy of 27.85 % was recorded for L. monacha when 4 × 108 conidia/ml of re-isolate from L. dispar were applied on larch needles. Our results show that L. dispar and L. monacha larvae are within the psihological host range of the used Isaria fumosorosea isolate from H. cunea and re-isolates obtained from infected larvae of D. pini, L. monacha and L. dispar, however their susceptibility is low. Indirect treatment by surface contact of host larvae with fungal conidia caused higher efficacy of mycosis than dipping into the suspension. Source

Daltry J.C.,Fauna and Flora International | Prospere A.,Sustainable Development Technology | Toussaint A.,Sustainable Development Technology | Gengelbach J.,University for Sustainable Development | Morton M.N.,Sustainable Development Technology
ORYX | Year: 2015

Wild tree resins generate billions of dollars in revenue annually but many species face extinction. The lansan tree Protium attenuatum has disappeared across most of its range as a result of overexploitation for its valuable oleoresin, which is used as incense. This study in Saint Lucia aimed to determine whether lansan resin could be harvested sustainably. Over 34 months, 298 trees were tapped using 10 experimental methods, and compared with 74 controls. Significantly more resin was produced by tapping the same trees repeatedly, tapping trees with a wider girth, cutting the same part of the trunk repeatedly, and, in particular, spraying diluted sulphuric acid on the cut. Applying 5 and 30% sulphuric acid boosted yields by 58 and 134%, respectively, without negative impacts on tree growth, condition or mortality. In contrast, traditional methods used by local tappers were destructive, causing greater decay and infection, slower growth rates and increased mortality. Results show tappers can obtain more resin and maintain healthy populations by tapping mature trees of ≥ 20 cm diameter at breast height, using only one shallow cut per tree (refreshed every 2 weeks) and applying weak sulphuric acid solution. A blind survey found consumers could not distinguish between incense produced with or without this stimulant. A national management plan has been devised whereby tappers will be licensed and trained in the optimal method and granted their own forest coupes to manage under Forestry Department supervision. The methods and findings may guide the sustainable use and conservation of other resin-producing trees. Copyright © 2015 Fauna & Flora International. Source

Graef F.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Schneider I.,Institute of Land Use Systems at ZALF | Fasse A.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Germer J.U.,University of Hohenheim | And 29 more authors.
Outlook on Agriculture | Year: 2015

Sustainable rural food systems for poor and vulnerable people need to be locally adapted to enhance food security. This requires participatory action research that considers the entire food value chain (FVC). This paper presents an assessment of the feasibility and potential success of upgrading strategies (UPS) for enhancing food security based on a study that was part of a larger participatory research project in two regions of Tanzania. The authors present the results relating to natural resource management and crop production. The results for natural resources show that enhanced soil water management was rated as high for the semi-arid Dodoma region. For the Morogoro region, the experts favoured soil fertility-improving UPS, such as conservation agriculture and agroforestry. Assessments of food production for both regions indicated the importance of intercropping, manure input, pest and disease control and cover crops. Assessments differed greatly between the two different climatic regions, and to a lesser extent between the nationality of the experts and their gender. This highlights the importance of including different South-North and female-male awareness in assessments. Implementation feasibility assessments of UPS indicated that the most suitable approaches were rainwater harvesting for semi-arid and conservation agriculture for subhumid regions respectively. Local and/or regional stakeholders and experts should be involved in developing and assessing site-adapted UPS for enhancing Tanzanian FVCs. Source

Graef F.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Schneider I.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Fasse A.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Germer J.U.,University of Hohenheim | And 28 more authors.
Outlook on Agriculture | Year: 2015

Food security is one of the main goals of rural poor people. To enhance food security in this context, participatory action research can help to ensure sustained success while considering entire food value chains (FVC). This paper assesses the feasibility and potential success of upgrading strategies (UPS) as well as their assessment criteria as developed by German and Tanzanian agricultural scientists. The results form part of a larger participatory research project conducted in two climatically representative regions of Tanzania: semi-arid Dodoma and subhumid Morogoro. This paper presents the findings with respect to food processing, waste management and bioenergy, along with income generation and market participation. Assessments on other components of the FVC, including natural resource management, crop production and consumption, are reported by Graef et al (2015). The assessments for food processing revealed preferences for preservation techniques, oil extraction processes and food storage devices for the semi-arid region. In contrast, in the subhumid region, the experts favoured food storage devices and preservation techniques. Assessments of waste management and bioenergy UPS for both regions indicated the importance of animal feed from crop residues, crop residues as mulch and compost from food waste, although with somewhat different priorities. Assessments on income generation and markets in both regions revealed preferences for savings and credit cooperatives and communication techniques, but also indicated that warehouse receipt systems and guarantee systems had a high impact. Assessments differed between the two different climatic regions, and to some extent also between the nationality of experts and their gender. The authors therefore attach importance to integrating different South-North and female-male awareness in assessments among scientists. Moreover, local and/or regional stakeholders and experts should be involved in developing site-adapted UPS for enhancing FVCs. Source

Hamidov A.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Hamidov A.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Hamidov A.,Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Melioration | Helming K.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | And 2 more authors.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

Agriculture is major sector in the economy of Central Asia. The sustainable use of agricultural land is therefore essential to economic growth, human well-being, social equity, and ecosystem services. However, salinization, erosion, and desertification cause severe land degradation which, in turn, degrade human health and ecosystem services. Here, we review the impact of agricultural land use in the five countries of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, during 2008–2013 in 362 articles. We use the Land Use Functions framework to analyze the type and relative shares of environmental, economic, and social topics related to agricultural land use. Our major findings are (1) research on land use in Central Asia received high levels of international attention and the trend in the number of publications exceeded the global average. (2) The impacts of land use on abiotic environmental resources were the most explored. (3) Little research is available about how agricultural land use affects biotic resources. (4) Relationships between land degradation, e.g., salinization and dust storms, and human health were the least explored. (5) The literature is dominated by indirect methods of data analysis, such as remote sensing and mathematical modeling, and in situ data collection makes up only a small proportion. © 2015, INRA and Springer-Verlag France. Source

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