University for Development Studies
Tamale, Ghana

The University for Development Studies, Tamale was established in 1992 as a multi-campus institution. It is the fifth public university to be established in Ghana. This deviates from the usual practice of having universities with central campuses and administrations. It was created with the three northern regions of North Ghana in mind. These are the Northern Region, Upper East Region and the Upper West Region. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-18-2015 | Award Amount: 4.96M | Year: 2016

SALSA will assess the role of small farms and small food businesses in delivering a sustainable and secure supply of affordable, nutritious and culturally adequate food. SALSA will identify the mechanisms which, at different scales, can strengthen the role of small farms in food systems and thereby support sustainable food and nutrition security (FNS). By considering a gradient of 30 reference regions in Europe and in Africa, we will obtain a differentiated understanding of the role of small farms and small food businesses in very differently structured food systems and situations. SALSA will elaborate and implement a transdisciplinary, multi-scale approach that builds on and connects relevant theoretical and analytical frameworks within a food systems approach, and that uses qualitative, consultative and quantitative methods. We will also test a new combination of data-based methods and tools (including satellite technologies) for rigorously assessing in quantitative terms the interrelationships between small farms, other small food businesses and FNS, paying particular attention to limiting and enabling factors. SALSA will use participatory methods, at regional level, and establish a more global Community of Practice and multi-stakeholder learning platform, based on FAOs TECA online communication and learning platform. The SALSA consortium, and the joint learning and close cooperation, have both been designed with the EU - Africa dialogue in mind. Responding to the call we will unravel the complex interrelationships between small farms, small food businesses and FNS, and unfold the role played by small farms in (a) the balance between the different dimensions of sustainability, (b) maintaining more diverse production systems, (c) supporting the urban/rural balance in terms of labour and (d) in facilitating territorial development in countries facing a strong rural population growth.

Spash C.L.,Vienna University of Economics and Business | Spash C.L.,University for Development Studies
Ecological Economics | Year: 2012

Ecological economics has been repeatedly described as transdiciplinary and open to including everything from positivism to relativism. I argue for a revision and rejection of this position in favour of realism and reasoned critique. Looking into the ontological presuppositions and considering an epistemology appropriate for ecological economics to meaningfully exist requires rejecting the form of methodological pluralism which has been advocated since the start of this journal. This means being clear about the differences in our worldview (or paradigm) from others and being aware of the substantive failures of orthodox economics in addressing reality. This paper argues for a fundamental review of the basis upon which ecological economics has been founded and in so doing seeks improved clarity as to the competing and complementary epistemologies and methodologies. In part this requires establishing serious interdisciplinary research to replace superficial transdisciplinary rhetoric. The argument places the future of ecological economics firmly amongst heterodox economic schools of thought and in ideological opposition to those supporting the existing institutional structures perpetuating a false reality of the world's social, environmental and economic systems and their operation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Enab T.A.,Mansoura University | Bondok N.E.,University for Development Studies
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

Aseptic loosening of the tibial component; which may be caused by mechanical stress shielding in the bone and may require revision surgery; is the primary concern of total knee replacement (TKR). The stiffness of the implant material had a marked influence on the stresses developed in the constituents and surrounding bones of the artificial knee and then will affect the bone stress shielding. Therefore, the functionally graded materials had been developed as a potential tibia tray material of TKR due to its improved capability of stress distribution. In the current investigation two dimensional finite element models have been developed to study bone and interface stresses for six different tibial prothesises (titanium, CoCrMo and four functional graded materials "FGM" models). The utilization of FGM tibia tray with elastic modulus changing gradually in vertical direction downwardly showed a favorable stress distribution outcome. Furthermore, the results has revealed that the FGM tibia tray will reduce the stress shielding in the surrounding bones of the artificial knee which will increase the life of the total knee prosthesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kanchebe Derbile E.,University for Development Studies | Van Der Geest S.,University of Amsterdam
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2013

For the past 10 years the Ghana Government has been trying to replace the old user fee system with an overall health insurance scheme, but one problem of the old system continues to bedevil the new policy: exemption of the poor. This paper presents data from empirical fieldwork and also puts forward an opinion. It discusses how past experiences of user fee exemptions for the poor can inform exemptions under the new 'National Health Insurance Scheme' (NHIS) as a means to ensuring equity in health care. Drawing on a study of exemptions in the three regions of northern Ghana, and utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methods and data, the findings show that exemptions were applied in favour of under-fives, antenatal care, the aged and public servants to the disadvantage of the poor. As a result, the poor had very little access to exemptions. Exemptions therefore failed to address equity concerns in health care, the very reason for which they were introduced. Thus, although the paper acknowledges that provision for the enrolment of the poor into the NHIS is a step in the right direction, it underscores that effective enrolment will be essential for attaining the equity goal of the policy. Informed by past experiences that undermined the equity goal of exemptions, three policy recommendations are put forward for improving exemptions for the poor under the NHIS. These are: (1) effective community education for enhancing premium paying enrolments into the NHIS alongside education on exemptions for the poor; (2) reviewing and clarifying policy guidelines for guiding local-level identification of the poor based on communities' own understanding of poverty; and (3) providing the requisite resources to enable the Department of Social Welfare to discharge its core mandate of identifying the poor for exemptions. © 2012 Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2012; all rights reserved.

Gumanga S.K.,University for Development Studies
Ghana medical journal | Year: 2012

Menstruation has a variable pattern within a few years of menarche which may not be well understood by many adolescent girls. Providing accurate information on menstruation is necessary to reduce anxiety, menstrual morbidity and improve reproductive health of these adolescents. To determine the age at menarche, duration of menstruation, length of menstrual cycle, regularity of menstrual cycle, prevalence of dysmenorrhoea and sources of information on menstruation. S(T) Mary's Senior Secondary School, Accra. Cross-sectional descriptive study using self-administered questionnaire. Four hundred and fifty six girls whose ages ranged from 14-19 years with mean and median ages of 16 ± 0.93 years and 16 years respectively were surveyed. Their ages at menarche ranged from 9 years to 16 years and the mean age at menarche was 12.5 ±1.28 years. Their menstrual cycle lengths ranged from 21-35 days with mean menstrual cycle length of 27.9± 0.9 days; the mode and median were both 28 days. The mean duration of menstrual flow was 4.9 days with mode and median of 5 days. Seventy one percent (n=449) had menses lasting 3-5 days while 27.2% had menses lasting over 5 days. Some 24% (n=409) had irregular menses six months after their menarche and 59.6% (n=453) were experiencing menses with clots. The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was 74.4% (n=453). Some 80.2% (n=378) of the girls got counselling and education on care for their menses from their parents. The age at menarche and other menstrual characteristics observed in this study are similar to adolescent menstrual characteristics described by studies in other populations in the world.

Boamah N.A.,University for Development Studies
Land Use Policy | Year: 2013

Land use controls may have positive, negative or neutral impact on urban land values. The Offinso South Municipality (OSM) employs conventional zoning in its land management practices. This article investigates the land use control regime in and its impact on land values and the living standards of residents of the municipality. Empirical data were obtained from physical developers in the municipality via self-administered questionnaire. It also collected data from occupiers of amenity lands via guided interviews. It finds that there exist large scale violations of planning controls in the municipality. It also finds that amenity lands are generally encroached upon sometimes with connivance of officials from the planning outfit. It suggests that the planning authority should dialogue with developers to ensure voluntary compliance. The planning authority should also build its capacity to enforce its land use plan. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Akudugu M.A.,University for Development Studies
Agricultural Finance Review | Year: 2016

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the connections of agricultural productivity, access to credit and farm size in Africa using Ghana as a case study. Design/methodology/approach – The paper employs mixed methods – quantitative and qualitative strategies for data collection and analyses. The hierarchical competitive model was used for the quantitative analyses supplemented with qualitative analyses using key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household case studies. Findings – The results show that there is significant relationship between credit from formal and informal sources and agricultural productivity. Thus access to formal and informal credit increases farm household agricultural productivity by about 0.10 (p=0.05) and 0.45 (p<0.01), respectively. The quadratic terms of formal and informal credit as well as farm size were found to significantly influence agricultural productivity. The implication of this is that the relationships between formal credit, informal credit and farm size on one hand and agricultural productivity on the other are non-linear in nature. The interactions of formal credit with informal credit; informal credit with farm size; and formal and informal credit with farm size have significant relationships with agricultural productivity. The amount of remittance received by farm households has negative and insignificant influence on agricultural productivity. Market access is also an insignificant determinant of agricultural productivity in Ghana. Originality/value – This paper provides new insights on whether the scale of production (farm size as proxy) and access to financial services (credit as a proxy) matter in promoting agricultural productivity in Africa using Ghana as a case study. Thus the paper is of relevance to policy-makers and practitioners in Africa and Ghana in particular who are seeking to make informed policy decisions on effectively incorporating credit provision into the agricultural transformation agenda of the continent. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Abdallah A.-H.,University for Development Studies
Agricultural Finance Review | Year: 2016

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of agricultural credit on technical efficiency of Ghanaian maize farmers using a unique dataset drawn from the database of Sub-Saharan Africa’s intensification of food crops agriculture (Afrint II) in 2008 period. Design/methodology/approach – In this study, a two-stage estimation procedure is employed to determine impact of agricultural credit on technical efficiency of Ghanaian maize farmers. The first stage utilized probit model while the second stage utilized stochastic frontier approach to estimate impact of credit on technical efficiency of Ghanaian maize farmers. Findings – The study found that farmers are producing below the frontier with average technical efficiency of 47 percent. Policy variables such as credit access; education, extension access and farm size played a stronger role in technical efficiency. Agricultural credit in particular increased technical efficiency by 3.8 percent. Research limitations/implications – The results should not be extended to the impact of agricultural credit on economic efficiency since the allocative efficiency component is not considered in this study. Also, caution should be taken in the interpretation of these results because the data could not permit the incorporation of all variables that might affect technical efficiency. Originality/value – The originality of the paper and its contribution to existing literature largely lies from the use of a unique dataset to find evidence of the impact of credit on efficiency in Ghana. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Abdallah A.-H.,University for Development Studies
Agricultural Finance Review | Year: 2016

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors affecting the adoption of agricultural technologies in Sub-Saharan Africa, specifically the role of credit market inefficiency in adoption of agricultural technologies in the region. Design/methodology/approach: Most importantly, the paper applies a 2SLS model on a unique data set on nine agrarian countries from Sub-Saharan Africa’s intensification of food crops agriculture (Afrint) to provide evidence on how credit market inefficiency affects adoption of technologies in the sub region. Findings: The study finds that the relationship between credit and technology adoption is one-way causal relation (i.e. credit access leads to technology adoption) as opposed to a two-way relation (i.e. mutual dependent relation). Further, the results indicate that credit market inefficiency can be a major barrier to the adoption of yield enhancing technologies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further, the study showed mixed results for household variables. The results give credence to studies that highlight the importance of infrastructure and risk control in the adoption of new technologies. Research limitations/implications: The study is limited to only nine countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, the findings and interpretations should be considered as such. Further, there is the need for further research that considers all the region so as to establish whether or not there is a relationship between credit market inefficiencies and technology adoption in the region. Practical implications: The policy implication is that microfinance institutions should consider scaling up their credit services to ensure that more households benefit from it, and in so doing technology adoption will be enhanced. Originality/value: The main contribution of the study lies in its use of a unique data set from Sub-Saharan Africa’s intensification of food crops agriculture (Afrint) to investigation relationship between credit market inefficiency and technology adoption. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Papp L.M.,University for Development Studies
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2010

This study examined the associations between dating partners' misuse of prescription medications and the implications of misuse for intimate relationship quality. A sample of 100 young adult dating pairs completed ratings of prescription drug use and misuse, alcohol use, and relationship quality. Results indicated positive associations between male and female dating partners' prescription drug misuse, which were more consistent for past year rather than lifetime misuse. Dyadic associations obtained through actor-partner interdependence modeling further revealed that individuals' prescription drug misuse holds problematic implications for their own but not their partners' intimate relationship quality. Models accounted for individuals' alcohol-related risk and medically appropriate prescription drug use, suggesting the independent contribution of prescription drug misuse to reports of relationship quality. The findings highlight the importance of considering young adults' substance behaviors in contexts of their intimate relationships. © 2010 American Psychological Association.

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