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Tamale, Ghana

The University for Development Studies, Tamale was established in 1992 as a multi-campus institution. It is the fifth public university to be established in Ghana. This deviates from the usual practice of having universities with central campuses and administrations. It was created with the three northern regions of North Ghana in mind. These are the Northern Region, Upper East Region and the Upper West Region. Wikipedia.

Boamah N.A.,University for Development Studies
Land Use Policy

Land use controls may have positive, negative or neutral impact on urban land values. The Offinso South Municipality (OSM) employs conventional zoning in its land management practices. This article investigates the land use control regime in and its impact on land values and the living standards of residents of the municipality. Empirical data were obtained from physical developers in the municipality via self-administered questionnaire. It also collected data from occupiers of amenity lands via guided interviews. It finds that there exist large scale violations of planning controls in the municipality. It also finds that amenity lands are generally encroached upon sometimes with connivance of officials from the planning outfit. It suggests that the planning authority should dialogue with developers to ensure voluntary compliance. The planning authority should also build its capacity to enforce its land use plan. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Boamah N.A.,University for Development Studies
Environment, Development and Sustainability

Housing deprivation is a major problem confronting Ghanaian households both in the urban and rural environments. This paper investigates the housing condition in the Offinso South Municipality (OSM). It finds out the adequacy of housing to households in the municipality. It sampled eight neighbourhoods in the OSM for data collection. Questionnaires were employed to garner empirical data from the households and property owners in the OSM. The paper finds out that there is high room occupancy rate and high household and population concentration in the housing units in the OSM. It notes that characteristics such as the level of education, authorization status of the house, annual household income, household size and autochthony correlate with measures of housing adequacy. The paper suggests that the municipal authority put in place appropriate standards to guide developers on the minimum acceptable housing facilities. Also, the municipal authority should adopt innovative approaches to encourage voluntary compliance to its building regulations. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Food insecurity and the loss of soil nutrients and productive capacity in Africa are serious problems in light of the rapidly growing African population. In semi-arid central Tanzania currently practiced traditional crop production systems are no longer adaptive. Organic crop production methods alone, while having the capacity to enable food security, are not feasible for these small-scale farmers because of the extra land, skill, resources, and 5–7 years needed to benefit from them—particularly for maize. Maize, grown by 94 % of farmers, has substantial nitrogen needs. The most practical ways of satisfying maize nutrient needs is via integrated soil fertility management, a combination of organic and Green Revolution methods. Maize has been shown in research to outyield the indigenous crops millet and sorghum in nearly all situations including drought. Conservation Agriculture (CA) in Africa has two main categories—organic and herbicide-mediated. The organic version of CA, despite years of promotion, has had a low rate of adoption. Herbicide-mediated zero tillage CA via backpack sprayer can substantially increase conventional maize yields while at the same time nearly eliminating erosion and increasing rainwater capture up to fivefold. Glyphosate herbicide is a non-proprietary product produced in Africa and approved for small farm use. The systemic nature of glyphosate allows the killing of perennial grasses that would otherwise need deep plowing to kill. The rooted weed residues protect the soil from erosion. The risks of glyphosate use are substantially outweighed by the benefits of increased food security and crop system sustainability. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Enab T.A.,Mansoura University | Bondok N.E.,University for Development Studies
Materials and Design

Aseptic loosening of the tibial component; which may be caused by mechanical stress shielding in the bone and may require revision surgery; is the primary concern of total knee replacement (TKR). The stiffness of the implant material had a marked influence on the stresses developed in the constituents and surrounding bones of the artificial knee and then will affect the bone stress shielding. Therefore, the functionally graded materials had been developed as a potential tibia tray material of TKR due to its improved capability of stress distribution. In the current investigation two dimensional finite element models have been developed to study bone and interface stresses for six different tibial prothesises (titanium, CoCrMo and four functional graded materials "FGM" models). The utilization of FGM tibia tray with elastic modulus changing gradually in vertical direction downwardly showed a favorable stress distribution outcome. Furthermore, the results has revealed that the FGM tibia tray will reduce the stress shielding in the surrounding bones of the artificial knee which will increase the life of the total knee prosthesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gumanga S.K.,University for Development Studies
Ghana medical journal

Menstruation has a variable pattern within a few years of menarche which may not be well understood by many adolescent girls. Providing accurate information on menstruation is necessary to reduce anxiety, menstrual morbidity and improve reproductive health of these adolescents. To determine the age at menarche, duration of menstruation, length of menstrual cycle, regularity of menstrual cycle, prevalence of dysmenorrhoea and sources of information on menstruation. S(T) Mary's Senior Secondary School, Accra. Cross-sectional descriptive study using self-administered questionnaire. Four hundred and fifty six girls whose ages ranged from 14-19 years with mean and median ages of 16 ± 0.93 years and 16 years respectively were surveyed. Their ages at menarche ranged from 9 years to 16 years and the mean age at menarche was 12.5 ±1.28 years. Their menstrual cycle lengths ranged from 21-35 days with mean menstrual cycle length of 27.9± 0.9 days; the mode and median were both 28 days. The mean duration of menstrual flow was 4.9 days with mode and median of 5 days. Seventy one percent (n=449) had menses lasting 3-5 days while 27.2% had menses lasting over 5 days. Some 24% (n=409) had irregular menses six months after their menarche and 59.6% (n=453) were experiencing menses with clots. The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was 74.4% (n=453). Some 80.2% (n=378) of the girls got counselling and education on care for their menses from their parents. The age at menarche and other menstrual characteristics observed in this study are similar to adolescent menstrual characteristics described by studies in other populations in the world. Source

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