Gontijo D.C.,University Federal Of Minas Geraismg |
Gontijo D.C.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
Brandao G.C.,Federal University of Ouro Preto |
Gontijo P.C.,University Federal Of Lavrasmg |
And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2017
Ocotea odorifera (Vell.) Rohwer is popularly used as food and flavoring. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the aqueous extract from O. odorifera leaves and evaluate the correlation of their phytochemical composition and biological activities. The antioxidant effect was determined by DPPH radical scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid and lipid peroxidation assays; the antibacterial activity was evaluated by the hole plate and MIC techniques and the antimutagenic activity was evaluated by the Ames test. Identification of phytochemicals was performed by LC–ESI/MS and the correlation between the phytochemical composition of the extract and the evaluated activities. The results allowed the identification of 13 phenolic compounds in the extract that exhibited high antioxidant activity and moderate antibacterial and antimutagenic action. Statistical analyses showed correlation of the total phenolic content with biologically related activities. The phytochemical analyses, together with the biological results, support the popular use of O. odorifera. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
De Azeredo A.A.C.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
Bhering L.L.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
Brasileiro B.P.,Federal University of Paraná |
Cruz C.D.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
And 4 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2017
Sugarcane breeding programs have been adapting to a new market demand: aside from high sucrose yield per hectare, the sector needs new cultivars with higher fiber percentages. The selection of sugarcane clones based on phenotype alone is a complex task. The selected clones should display high performance in a series of yield-and quality-related traits. Selection indices can provide information about which clones can best combine the traits of agronomic interest. In this study, different selection indices were evaluated in a population of 220 clones. The following traits were evaluated: weight of 10 stalks with straw, weight of 10 stalks with no straw, tons of cane per hectare with straw, tons of cane per hectare with no straw, sucrose content, fiber percentage, and tons of fiber per hectare. The selection indices of Smith (1936) and Hazel (1943) and Mulamba and Mock (1978), the base index (Williams, 1962), and the index of Pesek and Baker (1969) were used. The selection index of Mulamba and Mock (1978) without economic weight estimates, the index of Mulamba and Mock with economic weights based on heritability, and the index of Pesek and Baker (1969) with the desired gains based on genetic standard deviations were efficient for the selection of energy cane clones with good fiber yield, sucrose content, and tons of cane per hectare. © 2017 The Authors.
Efficacy and phosphorus equivalency values of two bacterial phytases (Escherichia coli and Citrobacter braakii) allow the partial reduction of dicalcium phosphate added to the diets of broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age
Ribeiro V.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
Salguero S.C.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
Gomes G.,AB Vista Feed Ingredients |
Barros V.R.S.M.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
And 5 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2016
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and the phosphorus equivalency of two bacterial phytases (Citrobacter braakii-derived phytase or genetically-modified Escherichia coli phytase) in the diets of broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. A total of 2100 male broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 10 treatments with 10 replicates of 21 chicks each. A basal diet was formulated containing 1.8 g per kg of non-phytate phosphorus and 9 g per kg of total calcium (T1). For treatments 2–4, dicalcium phosphate was added to give 0.9, 1.8, or 2.7 g per kg of additional inorganic phosphorus. The treatments from 5 to 7 received 500, 1000, or 2000 phytase units of Citrobacter braakii (FYT) per kg while the treatments from 8 to 10 received 250, 500, or 1000 phytase units of Escherichia coli (FTU) per kg. Increasing levels of inorganic phosphorus from dicalcium phosphate at 0.9, 1.8, and 2.7 g per kg improved (P < 0.05) feed intake by 52, 71, and 80%; weight gain by 41, 75, and 32%; tibia ash weight by 64, 156, and 185%; and tibia phosphorus by 110, 323, and 378%, respectively. Increasing levels of Citrobacter braakii-derived phytase at 500, 1000, and 2000 FYT per kg contributed to a significant improvement (P < 0.05) of 52, 55, and 65% for feed intake; 37, 56, and 65% for weight gain; 52, 87, and 133% for tibia ash weight; and 96, 173, and 273% for tibia phosphorus, respectively. Increasing levels of Escherichia coli-derived phytase at 250 to 500, and 1000 FTU per kg increased (P < 0.05) feed intake by 50, 61, and 70%; weight gain by 49, 60, and 76%; tibia ash weight by 80, 103, and 164%; and tibia phosphorus by 128, 198, and 330%. Linear regression equations (P < 0.05) were used to estimate phosphorus equivalency values of the two phytases. The Citrobacter braakii- and Escherichia coli-derived phytases can be used in the diets of broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age to partially reduce the addition of dicalcium phosphate as a phosphorus source. The supplementation of 500, 1000, and 2000 phytase units of Citrobacter braakii per kg were determined to be equivalent to the average addition of 0.625, 1.091, and 2.024 g of inorganic phosphorus from dicalcium phosphate per kg in broiler diets, respectively. The supplementation of 250, 500, and 1000 phytase units of Escherichia coli per kg were determined to be equivalent to the average addition of 0.763, 1.307, and 2.395 g of inorganic phosphorus from dicalcium phosphate per kg in broiler diets, respectively. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Duarte M.S.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
Paulino P.V.R.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
Nascimento C.S.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
Botelho M.E.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014
Twenty-four pregnant Nellore cows were randomly assigned into 2 feeding level groups (control [CTL]; fed 1.0 times the maintenance requirement; n = 12; and overnourished [ON]; fed at 1.5 times the maintenance requirement; n = 12) to evaluate effects of maternal overnutrition on fetal skeletal muscle development. Cows were slaughtered at 135, 190, and 240 d of gestation and samples of fetal LM were collected for analysis of mRNA expression analysis and for histological evaluation of collagen content and number of muscle cells. There was no interaction between gestational period and maternal nutrition for the variables evaluated (P > 0.05). The mRNA expression ofCadherin-associated protein, β 1 (β-catenin) tended to be greater in fetuses from ON cows (P = 0.08), while myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD;P = 0.56), myogenin (MyoG; P = 0.70), and the number of muscle cells (P= 0.90) were not affected by maternal overnutrition. Gestational period did not affect the mRNA expression of β-catenin (P = 0.60) and MyoG (P= 0.21). The mRNA expression of MyoD tended to increase with days of gestation (P = 0.06). The mRNA expression of zinc finger protein 423(Zfp423; P < 0.0001), C/EBPα (P = 0.01), and PPARγ (P < 0.0001) were enhanced in ON fetuses. No effects of days of gestation were observed for mRNA expression of Zfp423 (P = 0.75) and C/EBPα (P = 0.48). The mRNA expression of PPARγ in fetuses at 190 d of gestation tended to be greater than those at 135 and 240 d of gestation (P = 0.06). The mRNA expression of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β; P < 0.0001), collagen type III, α I (COL3A1; P < 0.0001), and collagen content (P = 0.01) were increased in ON fetuses. Gestational period did not affect the mRNA expression of collagen type I, α I (COL1A1; P = 0.65). The mRNA expression of COL3A1 (P = 0.09) in fetuses at 190 d of gestation tended to be greater than fetuses at 135 and 240 d of gestation. The mRNA expression of TGF-β in fetuses at 190 d of gestation was greater than in fetuses at 135 d of gestation (P = 0.03), and the values observed in fetuses at 240 d of gestation did not differ from the other gestational time points. The least value of collagen content (P = 0.01) was observed in fetuses at 135 d of gestation, and no differences were observed among the other gestational time points. These data shows that maternal overnutrition enhances fibrogenesis and likely adipogenesis without compromising myogenesis in fetal skeletal muscle of cattle. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.
Alcohol consumption and the influence of physical exercise on enzyme activity of wistar rats [Consumo de álcool e a influência do exercício físico na atividade enzimática de ratos wistar] [Consumo de alcohol y la influencia del ejercicio físico en la actividad de la enzima de ratas wistar]
Righi T.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
De Carvalho C.A.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
Ribeiro L.M.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
da Cunha D.N.Q.,University Federal Of Vicosamg |
And 4 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte | Year: 2016
Introduction: Biomarkers have been used to monitor the use of alcohol and currently the most sensitive and specific are the liver enzymes, for example, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Objective: To determine through animal experiments the changes caused by alcohol and the physical activity in liver and pancreatic enzymes. Methods: Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomly assigned into experimental groups, housed in cages with controlled environment, divided according to the treatment received. In the initial treatment, alcohol was administered to sedentary alcohol (SA) and exercised alcohol (EA) groups and at the end of the fourth week the program of physical training on a treadmill began with the AE and control exercised (CE) groups. Blood collection was performed by cardiac puncture at the end of each experiment. For the statistical analysis we used analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The AS group had significantly higher values of ALT and ALP when compared to CE and EA groups, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the four groups for the parameters AST, GGT and amylase. Conclusion: The association between alcohol consumption and physical inactivity increased the release of the enzymes ALT and ALP in Wistar rats; the practice of aerobic exercise after alcohol withdrawal prevented the increased release of ALP in the plasma of these animals. © 2016, Redprint Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.