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Duarte M.S.,University Federal Of Vicosamg | Paulino P.V.R.,University Federal Of Vicosamg | Nascimento C.S.,University Federal Of Vicosamg | Botelho M.E.,University Federal Of Vicosamg | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Twenty-four pregnant Nellore cows were randomly assigned into 2 feeding level groups (control [CTL]; fed 1.0 times the maintenance requirement; n = 12; and overnourished [ON]; fed at 1.5 times the maintenance requirement; n = 12) to evaluate effects of maternal overnutrition on fetal skeletal muscle development. Cows were slaughtered at 135, 190, and 240 d of gestation and samples of fetal LM were collected for analysis of mRNA expression analysis and for histological evaluation of collagen content and number of muscle cells. There was no interaction between gestational period and maternal nutrition for the variables evaluated (P > 0.05). The mRNA expression ofCadherin-associated protein, β 1 (β-catenin) tended to be greater in fetuses from ON cows (P = 0.08), while myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD;P = 0.56), myogenin (MyoG; P = 0.70), and the number of muscle cells (P= 0.90) were not affected by maternal overnutrition. Gestational period did not affect the mRNA expression of β-catenin (P = 0.60) and MyoG (P= 0.21). The mRNA expression of MyoD tended to increase with days of gestation (P = 0.06). The mRNA expression of zinc finger protein 423(Zfp423; P < 0.0001), C/EBPα (P = 0.01), and PPARγ (P < 0.0001) were enhanced in ON fetuses. No effects of days of gestation were observed for mRNA expression of Zfp423 (P = 0.75) and C/EBPα (P = 0.48). The mRNA expression of PPARγ in fetuses at 190 d of gestation tended to be greater than those at 135 and 240 d of gestation (P = 0.06). The mRNA expression of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β; P < 0.0001), collagen type III, α I (COL3A1; P < 0.0001), and collagen content (P = 0.01) were increased in ON fetuses. Gestational period did not affect the mRNA expression of collagen type I, α I (COL1A1; P = 0.65). The mRNA expression of COL3A1 (P = 0.09) in fetuses at 190 d of gestation tended to be greater than fetuses at 135 and 240 d of gestation. The mRNA expression of TGF-β in fetuses at 190 d of gestation was greater than in fetuses at 135 d of gestation (P = 0.03), and the values observed in fetuses at 240 d of gestation did not differ from the other gestational time points. The least value of collagen content (P = 0.01) was observed in fetuses at 135 d of gestation, and no differences were observed among the other gestational time points. These data shows that maternal overnutrition enhances fibrogenesis and likely adipogenesis without compromising myogenesis in fetal skeletal muscle of cattle. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source


Morales R.G.F.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria e Extensao Rural de Santa Catarina Epagri | Resende L.V.,Federal University of Lavras | Bordini I.C.,Federal University of Lavras | Galvao A.G.,Federal University of Lavras | Rezende F.C.,University Federal Of Lavrasmg
Scientia Agraria | Year: 2015

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the morphological/physiological characteristics of tomato plants when submitted to different levels of water deficit and, based on these results, indicate the best characters for the selection of plants with more tolerance to water deficit. The experimental delineation was in randomized complete block design, with four replications, arranged in splitplot, in which the main treatments (plots) were composed by two strains (TOM-684 and M-82) and the subplots, by four levels of soil moisture (100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the field capacity). The following parameters were evaluated: fruit production, leaf, stem and root system fresh and dry mass, stem diameter, plant height, number of leaves, photosynthesis, transpiration, foliar temperature, intracellular moisture, intracellular carbon dioxide, stomatal conductance, conductance of intracellular CO2 and total conductance. With the reduction of soil moisture occurred reduction in the number of leaves, plant height and leaf, stem and root system fresh and dry mass, transpiration, photosynthetic rate, fruit production and increase of foliar temperature The stomatal conductance differed between both strains, with higher values for the TOM-684 strain, which reduced stomatal conductance from 0,70 to 0,25 mol m-2 s-1 between levels of 100 and 25% of field capacity. Plant height and the number of leaves may be used in breeding programs as a tool for the selection of plants with higher resistance to water deficit. © 2015, Universidade Federal do Parana 1. All rights reserved. Source


Hernandez-Mosqueira C.,Pedro de Valdivia University | Hernandez-Mosqueira C.,University Federal Of Lavrasmg | Hernandez-Mosqueira C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Da Silva S.F.,University Federal Of Lavrasmg
Revista de Salud Publica | Year: 2015

Objective To develop physical fitness reference tables oriented towards the health of female students in the 10 to 14 year age range, in Chillán, Chile. Method The present is a cross-sectional study. The sample is composed of 250 female students in the 10 to 14 year age range. To evaluate health-related physical fitness, the following tests were used: Body mass index (BMI), Deurengerg Formula (Body fat %), Wells and Dillon’s Bench (Flexibility), Sargent Jump Test (lower limbs strength, 1 Mile Test (endurance) and the 30 Seconds Sit Up Test (focalized muscular endurance). Descriptive statistics were used to develop the reference tables. From the results, 5 categories were made: very bad, bad, regular, good, and very good. Age was used as a parameter. Results This study demonstrates the low level of fitness capacity of the group evaluated when compared to national and international references. It shows low levels of cardiorespiratory endurance, strength of lower limbs, flexibility, and focalized muscular endurance. The present study also shows that being overweight is associated with low cardiorespiratory capacity, and that there was a high prevalence of this in the sample compared to the national level of overweight and obesity in females in the 10-14 age range. Conclusion The tests applied in the present study are a reliable and simple tool for assessing the level of health-related fitness capacity. They can be applied in any educational institution, since a large or complex infrastructure for its application is not required. © 2015, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved. Source


Amaral L.S.,University Federal Of Lavrasmg | da Silva J.R.M.,University Federal Of Lavrasmg | Hein P.R.G.,University Federal Of Lavrasmg | Trugilho P.F.,University Federal Of Lavrasmg
Revista Arvore | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of diameter class, general moisture and sapwood moisture over the retention of CCA-C (Chromated Copper Arsenate type C) on a Eucalyptus urophylla clone wood preserved in autoclave. 36 fence posts were used, belonging to the diameter classes of 7, 9, 11 and 13 cm, which were separated and exposed to three outdoor drying times: 20, 40 and 70 days. The pre-treatment moisture values, general and only sapwood, were determined by diameter class and drying times. After the preservation in autoclave, the treatment quality control was made by analyzing the CCA-C retention. Retention in fence posts of the 7 cm class was higher than those of 9, 11 and 13 cm classes, which did not vary statistically amongst each other. The increase in drying time from 20 to 40 days resulted in significant increase in average retention from 5.70 to 6.67 kg A.I.*m-3. The mean variations of the general moisture and the sapwood were significant with variation of retention, showing good correlation between the factors. The correlation between the fence posts general moisture and retention of CCA-C (r = -0.86) was stronger than the correlation between sapwood moisture and retention (r = -0.70). © 2014, Sociedade de Investigacoes Florestais. All rights reserved. Source

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