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Ekouevi D.K.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Ekouevi D.K.,University of Lome | Tchounga B.K.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Coffie P.A.,University Fe lix Houphoue t Boigny | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Few data are available on antiretroviral therapy (ART) response among HIV-2 infected patients. We conducted a systematic review on treatment outcomes among HIV-2 infected patients on ART, focusing on the immunological and virological responses in adults. Methods: Data were extracted from articles that were selected after screening of PubMed/MEDLINE up to November 2012 and abstracts of the 1996-2012 international conferences. Observational cohorts, clinical trials and program reports were eligible as long as they reported data on ART response (clinical, immunological or virological) among HIV-2 infected patients. The determinants investigated included patients' demographic characteristics, CD4 cell count at baseline and ART received. Results: Seventeen reports (involving 976 HIV-2 only and 454 HIV1&2 dually reactive patients) were included in the final review, and the analysis presented in this report are related to HIV-2 infected patients only. There was no randomized controlled trial and only two cohorts had enrolled more than 100 HIV-2 only infected patients. The median CD4 count at ART initiation was 165 cells/mm3, [IQR; 137-201] and the median age at ART initiation was 44 years (IQR: 42-48 years). Ten studies included 103 patients treated with three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Protease inhibitor (PI) based regimens were reported by 16 studies. Before 2009, the most frequent PIs used were Nelfinavir and Indinavir, whereas it was Lopinavir/ritonavir thereafter. The immunological response at month-12 was reported in six studies and the mean CD4 cell count increase was +118 cells/μL (min-max: 45-200 cells/μL).Conclusion: Overall, clinical and immuno-virologic outcomes in HIV-2 infected individuals treated with ART are suboptimal. There is a need of randomized controlled trials to improve the management and outcomes of people living with HIV-2 infection. © 2014 Ekouevi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hu rlimann E.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Hu rlimann E.,University of Basel | Hu rlimann E.,Center Suisse Of Recherches Scientifiques En Cote Divoire | Houngbedji C.A.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | And 14 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Malaria and helminth infections are thought to negatively affect children's nutritional status and to impair their physical and cognitive development. Yet, the current evidence-base is weak. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of deworming against soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis on children's physical fitness, cognition and clinical parameters in a malaria-helminth co-endemic setting of Coˆte d'Ivoire.Methods: We designed an intervention study with a 5-month follow-up among schoolchildren aged 5-14 years from Niable´, eastern Coˆte d'Ivoire. In late 2012, a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted. Finger-prick blood, stool and urine samples were subjected to standardised, quality-controlled techniques for the diagnosis of Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma spp., soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. Haemoglobin level was determined and anthropometric measurements were taken for appraisal of anaemia and nutritional status. Children underwent memory (digit span) and attention (code transmission) cognitive testing, and their physical fitness and strength were determined (20 m shuttle run, standing broad jump and grip strength test). All children were treated with albendazole (against soil-transmitted helminthiasis) and praziquantel (against schistosomiasis) after the baseline cross-sectional survey and again 2 months later. Five months after the initial deworming, the same battery of clinical, cognitive and physical fitness tests was performed on the same children.Results: Lower scores in strength tests were significantly associated with children with harbouring nutritional deficiencies. Surprisingly, boys infected with Schistosoma mansoni achieved longer jumping distances than their non-infected counterparts. Light-intensity infection with S. mansoni was associated with slightly better aerobic capacity. Deworming showed no effect on haemoglobin levels and anaemia, but children with moderate- to heavy-intensity Schistosoma infection at baseline gained weight more pronouncedly than non-infected children. Interestingly, children with soil-transmitted helminth or Schistosoma infection at baseline performed significantly better in the sustained attention test than their non-infected counterparts at the 5-month follow-up.Conclusions: This study revealed conflicting results regarding clinical parameters and cognitive behaviour of children after two rounds of deworming. We speculate that potential beneficial effects of deworming are likely to be undermined in areas where malaria is co-endemic and nutritional deficiencies are widespread. © 2014 Hu¨rlimann et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Konan Y.,University Fe lix Houphoue t Boigny | Witabouna K.M.,University Fe lix Houphoue t Boigny | Bassirou B.,University Fe lix Houphoue t Boigny | Kagoyire K.,University Fe lix Houphoue t Boigny
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2014

Plants are widely consumed in Africa and may contribute to improve the nutritional status and health of people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of nine plants consumed in people's diet. Out of 20 extracts tested (10 dichloromethane and 10 methanolic 80%), 18 (90%) exhibited ability to scavenge free radicals. High correlation has been established between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Psorospermum febrifugum, Myrianthus arboreus and Ceratotheca sesamoides. These plants could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants and developed into functional food for nutrition and prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases.

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