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Boccard N.,FCEE | Wauthy X.Y.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis
International Journal of Industrial Organization | Year: 2010

Both quality differentiation and capacity commitment have been shown to relax price competition. However, their joint influence on the outcome of price competition has not yet been assessed. In this article, we consider a three-stage game in which firms choose quality, then commit to capacity and, finally, compete in price. When the cost of quality is negligible, we show that firms do not differentiate their products in a subgame perfect equilibrium, in other words, capacity precommitment completely eliminates the incentive to differentiate by quality. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Orsini A.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis
Global Environmental Politics | Year: 2013

This research brings together studies of non-state actors (NSAs) in environmental negotiations, transnational networks, and institutional fragmentation, to shed light on the influence of NSAs on policy-making in regime complexes. It presents a new analytical framework with a series of deductive assumptions about the influence of "multi-forum" NSAs, as compared with "single forum" NSAs. Multi-forum NSAs cover several elements of a regime complex, and are thereby able to follow and potentially influence fragmented institutional processes. Focusing on two cases of fragmented environmental governance-forestry and access to genetic resources-the analysis provides a quantitative (statistics, network analysis) and qualitative (interviews) testing ground for the proposed framework. Because of their considerable material, organizational and ideational resources, and long-term engagement, multi-forum NSAs have greater access to the negotiations and may become central players. The strategies such NSAs adopt can further the integration of regime complexes when they undertake forum linking, or push towards further fragmentation when they undertake forum shopping or forum shifting. © 2013 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Misonne D.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis
Transnational Environmental Law | Year: 2014

The European Union (EU) aims to ensure a high level of environmental protection. This is a key message of primary EU law. This article explores the purpose and meaning of this explicit ambition. It deciphers its influence on case law and on judicial review of legislative and administrative discretion. It argues that the requirement goes beyond window dressing and that its added value lies both in supporting the legitimacy of bold decisions and in preventing a manifest dismissal of the requisites of environmental protection. Although primarily focused on EU law and on its technicalities, the article may offer helpful insights to other transnational or federal systems. It may help to build a better understanding of some of the challenges facing any environmental law regime confronted with the sensitive issue of 'ambition'. © Cambridge University Press 2015.

Fagnart J.-F.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis | Fagnart J.-F.,Catholic University of Leuven | Germain M.,Charles de Gaulle University - Lille 3 | Germain M.,Catholic University of Leuven
Ecological Economics | Year: 2011

We reassess the issue of limits to growth in an endogenous growth model of a decentralized economy where final productions require a recyclable essential material input. The model relies on technological assumptions consistent with the material balance principle and on an explicit distinction between the material content and the quality of the produced goods. Growth follows from research activities that allow firms to improve the quality of their output and to reduce the material resource intensiveness of their production process. Even though recycling is assumed perfect, we show that 1) the material balance constraint may affect the whole transitory dynamics of the growth process; 2) quantitative growth (i.e. positive growth of material output) can only be a transitory phenomenon, long term economic growth taking exclusively the form of perpetual improvements in the quality of final goods. A long term growth path is characterized by constant values of material variables (or in a less favourable scenario, by a constant negative growth rate of those variables). We establish the existence conditions of a growth path based on quality improvements and constant material variables. It may fail to exist in a decentralized framework even though it is feasible from a purely physical point of view. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

De Witte A.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Hollevoet J.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Dobruszkes F.,University of Oxford | Hubert M.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis | And 2 more authors.
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2013

Modal choice is determined by a whole range of factors that are interrelated to a larger or smaller extent. It is often the result of a very compound choice process that can take place consciously or unconsciously and that includes objective as well as subjective determinants. Despite its significance in our daily life, there is no uniform way to define and analyze the concept of modal choice. The aim of this review is to fill this gap by elaborating a common modal choice definition and by providing a comprehensive review on the concept of modal choice through linking it to Kaufmann's motility concept. By doing so, this review will not only contribute to an improved knowledge on different modal choice determinants and their interdependencies, but can also assist to the understanding and modeling of modal choice decisions. The review can therefore help increasing the effectiveness of policy measures taken by environmental, urban and transport policy makers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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