University Faculties of Saint-Louis
Brussels, Belgium
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Since 1930, Belgium has had a law for the protection of society aimed at protecting Belgians against dangerous insane offenders. These mentally ill offenders are subject to internment which is a measure for an indeterminate period. They remain interned as long as their mental state has not improved enough to be released. The internment system is ambiguous and fluctuates between caregiving and security. It also poses the problem of expertise in a field dominated by a risk logic producing little room for a care perspective. As result of many condemnations by the European Court of Human Rights, Belgium has recently modified its legislation, with a new Act of 2014, which came into force on the 1st October, 2016. Copyright © 2017 John Libbey Eurotext. Downloaded by Elsevier Scopus on 18/03/2017.

Laurier W.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis | Laurier W.,Ghent University | Poels G.,Ghent University
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2013

This paper presents a framework for the integration of supply chain (or logistics/distribution), value chain (or financial), and business process (or operational/manufacturing) simulation models, which should facilitate assessing the impact of supply chain and operational changes on an enterprise's financial performance. A Design Science approach is taken to demonstrate that the REA ontology, which provides a shared conceptual ground for these three model types, and its axioms, which describe invariant conditions for value systems, can help to build conceptually sound simulation models and identify the integration points between these models. It is further shown how these three types of simulation models can be integrated into one value system model for discrete event simulation, making use of the ExSpecT simulation tool. With this ontology-based framework, simulation model builders should be able to scope their models better and define integration points with other models, which is expected to promote the (re)use of simulation models for different purposes (e.g., simulating logistical, operational and financial performance). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Boccard N.,FCEE | Wauthy X.Y.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis
International Journal of Industrial Organization | Year: 2010

Both quality differentiation and capacity commitment have been shown to relax price competition. However, their joint influence on the outcome of price competition has not yet been assessed. In this article, we consider a three-stage game in which firms choose quality, then commit to capacity and, finally, compete in price. When the cost of quality is negligible, we show that firms do not differentiate their products in a subgame perfect equilibrium, in other words, capacity precommitment completely eliminates the incentive to differentiate by quality. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

De Sadeleer N.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis
Review of European, Comparative and International Environmental Law | Year: 2016

Both negative and positive harmonization are likely to restrict Member States’ regulatory powers to protect the environment. Given that numerous environmental fiscal measures are likely to restrict one way or another inter-State trade, even though that may not be their objective, Member States are reluctant to foster green tax policies. Environmental protection measures and the free movement of goods enshrined in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union seem thus to be at odds with one another. The case under review raises some critical issues regarding the validity of environmental taxes on certain beverage packaging. The Court of Justice of the European Union has handed down a preliminary ruling that provides important clarifications in that respect. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Francois M.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis | Hamaide B.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis
Environmental Policy and Governance | Year: 2011

As currently designed and implemented, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol is a market mechanism that creates 'offset' credits, named CERs (certified emission reductions). These credits are issued to Annex I Parties that invest in projects both reducing emissions and contributing to sustainable development in developing countries. This paper explores how CER weights could be used to reform and improve this mechanism. On the one hand, weights strictly lower than 1, or discount factors, would improve the environmental effectiveness of the CDM, enhancing global greenhouse gas emission mitigation while addressing the additionality concern. On the other hand, weights higher than 1, or multiplication factors, could increase the competitiveness of project types and/or host countries currently underrepresented in the CDM pipeline. This paper concentrates on stimulating investment from developed nations to less developed countries and aims at reducing the disparity between the three main CDM host countries (Brazil, India and China) and less developed nations. Based on statistical data published by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, our analysis then considers different policies, estimates their impacts, and shows how a sensible mix of discounting and multiplication could lead to a more equitable geographical distribution of CDM projects and possibly create atmospheric benefits. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment.

Misonne D.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis
Transnational Environmental Law | Year: 2014

The European Union (EU) aims to ensure a high level of environmental protection. This is a key message of primary EU law. This article explores the purpose and meaning of this explicit ambition. It deciphers its influence on case law and on judicial review of legislative and administrative discretion. It argues that the requirement goes beyond window dressing and that its added value lies both in supporting the legitimacy of bold decisions and in preventing a manifest dismissal of the requisites of environmental protection. Although primarily focused on EU law and on its technicalities, the article may offer helpful insights to other transnational or federal systems. It may help to build a better understanding of some of the challenges facing any environmental law regime confronted with the sensitive issue of 'ambition'. © Cambridge University Press 2015.

Cliquennois G.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis | Cliquennois G.,Institute Of Recherche Interdisciplinaire Sur Les Enjeux Sociaux
British Journal of Criminology | Year: 2010

This paper shows that preventing 'suicide risks' in French prison regulations is thwarted in two prisons by professional criteria regarding credibility and solidarity, as well as by the balance of power between prisoners and guards, in addition to the realization, on the part of the judges responsible for sentencing, of the risks posed by recidivists. The results of this study should provoke a re-evaluation of suicide prevention programmes when considered in the light of the numerous mediations and transcriptions between these programmes and their subsequent concretization in the culture and practices of prison employees. © 2010 The Author.

Orsini A.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis
Global Environmental Politics | Year: 2013

This research brings together studies of non-state actors (NSAs) in environmental negotiations, transnational networks, and institutional fragmentation, to shed light on the influence of NSAs on policy-making in regime complexes. It presents a new analytical framework with a series of deductive assumptions about the influence of "multi-forum" NSAs, as compared with "single forum" NSAs. Multi-forum NSAs cover several elements of a regime complex, and are thereby able to follow and potentially influence fragmented institutional processes. Focusing on two cases of fragmented environmental governance-forestry and access to genetic resources-the analysis provides a quantitative (statistics, network analysis) and qualitative (interviews) testing ground for the proposed framework. Because of their considerable material, organizational and ideational resources, and long-term engagement, multi-forum NSAs have greater access to the negotiations and may become central players. The strategies such NSAs adopt can further the integration of regime complexes when they undertake forum linking, or push towards further fragmentation when they undertake forum shopping or forum shifting. © 2013 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

De Witte A.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Hollevoet J.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Dobruszkes F.,University of Oxford | Hubert M.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis | And 2 more authors.
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2013

Modal choice is determined by a whole range of factors that are interrelated to a larger or smaller extent. It is often the result of a very compound choice process that can take place consciously or unconsciously and that includes objective as well as subjective determinants. Despite its significance in our daily life, there is no uniform way to define and analyze the concept of modal choice. The aim of this review is to fill this gap by elaborating a common modal choice definition and by providing a comprehensive review on the concept of modal choice through linking it to Kaufmann's motility concept. By doing so, this review will not only contribute to an improved knowledge on different modal choice determinants and their interdependencies, but can also assist to the understanding and modeling of modal choice decisions. The review can therefore help increasing the effectiveness of policy measures taken by environmental, urban and transport policy makers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Hamaide B.,University Faculties of Saint-Louis | Sheerin J.,University of Arizona
Ecological Economics | Year: 2011

The expansion of nature reserves is an important public policy strategy for the protection of biological diversity. In this paper, the authors use integer programming model structures derived from Location Set Covering Problem and Maximal Covering Location Problem approaches of location science as tools for selectively augmenting nature reserve sites for special status species protection. The linear programming models presented incorporate the following: biological constraints in the form of species' area needs; economic constraints in the form of opportunity costs of converting smaller administrative districts into nature reserves; and spatial constraints in the form of required connectivity among districts in site selection. The construction of a taxonomic data set for Thailand enables the implementation of the models, the comparison of results and evaluation of the differences in outcomes. The models build upon the existing nature reserve network in Thailand and suggest various public policy options that would augment the reserves for enhancing species protection and for possibly improving national conservation efforts at lowest costs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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