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Temporary wetlands undergo recurrent drought due to the scarcity of water, which disrupts the hydrological connectivity with adjacent aquatic systems. However, some environments retain water for longer periods, allowing greater persistence of the community. The current study evaluated differences in the microcrustacean assemblages and limnological variability between perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The abiotic features (water temperature, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity and depth) of intermittent pools were affected more than perennial pools due to loss of water volume. This may have contributed to a higher average richness and diversity index in some intermittent pools and differences in the structure of the assemblages. The lowest species richness and diversity were recorded where physical factors, such as a large quantity of suspended solids and variability in the electrical conductivity of the water and pH, make the environment unsuitable for these organisms. These results suggest that community development in intermittent pools is interrupted by the dry season; when the water returns, due to rainfall or rising groundwater, each pond undergoes a different process of colonization. In these circumstances, the biological importance of temporary aquatic environments is clear, since such pools provide shelters and have an important role in the maintenance of the regional diversity of aquatic environments. Source

Do Sacramento C.K.,University Estadual Santa Cruz | Do Sacramento C.K.,University Estadual Julio Mesquita
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2014

The cultivation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a recent activity in Brazil and many of the technical recommendations are extrapolated from other producing countries. In Brazil, the commercial plantation of rambutan, are restricted to the states of Bahia, Pará and São Paulo and are formed by plants propagated sexually, and so presents a high genetic variability. This variability rambuteiras has allowed the selection of genotypes that produce fruit with the features required for export. Some pests and diseases have been reported in rambuteiras in Brazil. The production is sold domestically as fresh fruit. © 2014, Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura. All rights reserved. Source

Curcio F.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Sales Nunes P.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Argolo A.J.S.,University Estadual Santa Cruz | Skuk G.,Federal University of Alagoas | Rodrigues M.T.,University of Sao Paulo
Herpetological Monographs | Year: 2012

A taxonomic study on the South American dwarf boas of the genus Tropidophis revealed the existence of two new species in the Atlantic Forest biome. As a result, we recognize five mainland species, three in the Atlantic Forest and two in northwestern South America. Based on general distribution and morphological orientation, the type locality of T. paucisquamis is restricted to Estação Biológica de Boracéia (EBB), municipality of Salesópolis, state of São Paulo, Brazil; furthermore, a lectotype for T. taczanowskyi is designated. We provide data on the hemipenial morphology of two South American Tropidophis, showing that the quadrifurcate condition described for West Indian taxa also occurs in mainland congeners. The distributions of the three Atlantic Forest species are congruent with patterns of diversification of other vertebrate taxa associated with cold climates prevalent at high elevations. Refugial isolation and riverine barriers may account for such speciation events. © The Herpetologists' League, Inc. Source

Da Silva D.G.,Federal University of Bahia | Scarminio I.S.,Federal University of Bahia | Scarminio I.S.,State University Londrina | Anunciacao D.S.,Federal University of Bahia | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2013

The mineral composition of Brazilian rice samples was determined and the data obtained were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Nineteen commercial rice samples were analyzed, six being brown, seven parboiled and six white. The elements were determined employing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), and the accuracy was confirmed using a certified reference material of rice flour. The PCA showed the formation of three clusters: a group with the brown rice samples, other with the parboiled rice samples and another of the white rice samples. PCA also showed that the brown rice samples are richer in minerals than the white and parboiled rice samples. Calcium, sodium, zinc and manganese in white rice samples are higher than in parboiled rice samples, while the parboiled rice has higher contents of iron, magnesium, strontium, potassium and phosphor. HCA also demonstrated formation of three major groups, confirming the results obtained by PCA. Application of HCA in the subgroups of rice samples clearly showed separation of rice brands and also separation between the raw and cooked samples. The mineral composition in the rice samples analyzed agrees with data reported by other authors. This paper revealed that the mineral compositions for white, brown and parboiled rice are significantly different. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Zanine A.M.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Santos E.M.,Federal University of Paraiba | Dorea J.R.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Dantas P.A.S.,University Estadual Santa Cruz | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of adding cassava scrapings on gas and effluent losses, dry matter recovery, pH, contents of N-NH 3, organic acids and volatile fatty acids and the bromatological composition of elephant grass silages. It was used a randomized complete design, with four levels of cassava scrapings (0, 7, 15 or 30% natural matter) each one with four replications per level. The grass was cut at 50 days of regrowth and ensiled in 15-L silos, equipped with a Bunsen valve to allow gas outflow. The gas losses decreased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings, whereas effluent losses decreased linearly. Dry matter recovery increased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings. Dry matter (DM) concentration increased but crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose (HEM) decreased linearly with the addition of cassava scrapings. The pH value and lactic acid concentration increased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings. Contents of N-NH 3 and butyric acid decreased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings, whereas acetic acid content decreased linearly. Addition of cassava scrapings reduced gas and effluent losses and improved the fermentation profile of elephant grass silages and the level of 7% already ensures this improvement. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Source

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