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São Francisco de Assis, Brazil

Segatto A.F.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Junior I.F.F.,University Estadual Paulista | Santos V.R.D.,Sao Paulo State University | Alves K.C.D.L.R.P.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2012

Background: Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA). Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA) , in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods. The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female), aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results: The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p<0.001) and female (r=0.87, p <001), while the lowest were in the waist/thigh also for both: male group (r=0.58, p<0.001) and female group (r=0.03, p=0.86). The other indices also showed significant positive correlation with DEXA. Conclusion: Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS. © 2012 Segatto et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Plachno B.J.,Jagiellonian University | Stpiczynska M.,University of Warsaw | Davies K.L.,University of Cardiff | Swiatek P.,University of Silesia | de Miranda V.F.O.,University Estadual Paulista
Protoplasma | Year: 2016

Utricularia cornigera and Utricularia nelumbifolia are giant, aquatic-epiphytic species of carnivorous bladderwort from southeastern Brazil that grow in the central ‘urns’ of bromeliads. Both species have large, colourful flowers. The main aim of our study is to ascertain whether the prominent floral palate of U. cornigera and U. nelumbifolia functions as an unguentarius—i.e. an organ that bears osmophores. Floral tissues of both species were investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. Floral palates of U. cornigera and U. nelumbifolia provide clear visual signals for pollinating insects. In both species, the palate possesses diverse micro-morphology, comprising unicellular, conical to villiform papillae and multicellular, uniseriate, glandular trichomes that frequently display terminal branching. The most characteristic ultrastructural feature of these papillae was the presence of relatively large, polymorphic plastids (chromoplasts) containing many plastoglobuli. Similar plastids are known to occur in the fragrance-producing (osmophores) and oil-producing (elaiophores) tissues of several orchid species. Thus, these palate papillae may play a key role in providing the olfactory stimulus for the attraction of insect pollinators. Nectariferous trichomes were observed in the floral spurs of both species, and in U. nelumbifolia, free nectar was also recorded. The location, micro-morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of the floral palate of the two species investigated may thus indicate that the palate functions as an unguentarius. Furthermore, the flowers of these taxa, like those of U. reniformis, have features consistent with bee pollination. © 2016 The Author(s)

Beserra F.P.,University Estadual Paulista | de Cassia Santos R.,Universidade Sao Francisco | Perico L.L.,University Estadual Paulista | Rodrigues V.P.,University Estadual Paulista | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal actions of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Cissus sicyoides (HECS). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by oral administration of HECS against acute model of edema induced by xylene, and the mechanisms of action were analysed by involvement of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The antidiarrheal effect of HECS was observed and we analyzed the motility and accumulation of intestinal fluid. We also analyzed the antidiarrheal mechanisms of action of HECS by evaluating the role of the opioid receptor, α2 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor, nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2. The oral administration of HECS inhibited the edema induced by xylene and AA and was also able to significantly decrease the levels of PGE2. The extract also exhibited significant anti-diarrheal activity by reducing motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. This extract significantly reduced intestinal transit stimulated by muscarinic agonist and intestinal secretion induced by PGE2. Our data demonstrate that the mechanism of action involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of HECS is related to PGE2. The antidiarrheal effect of this extract may be mediated by inhibition of contraction by acting on the intestinal smoothmuscle and/or intestinal transit. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Cruz V.P.,University Estadual Paulista | Oliveira C.,University Estadual Paulista | Foresti F.,University Estadual Paulista
Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

5S rDNA genes of the stingray Potamotrygon motoro were PCR replicated, purified, cloned and sequenced. Two distinct classes of segments of different sizes were obtained. The smallest, with 342 bp units, was classified as class I, and the largest, with 1900 bp units, was designated as class II. Alignment with the consensus sequences for both classes showed changes in a few bases in the 5S rDNA genes. TATA-like sequences were detected in the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) regions of class I and a microsatellite (GCT)10 sequence was detected in the NTS region of class II. The results obtained can help to understand the molecular organization of ribosomal genes and the mechanism of gene dispersion. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

Camargo I.C.C.,University Estadual Paulista | Leite G.A.A.,University Estadual Paulista | Pinto T.,University Estadual Paulista | Ribeiro-Paes J.T.,University Estadual Paulista
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014

The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n= 16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5. mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5. mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0. mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<. 0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<. 0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

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