Nogueira S.S.C.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz |
Nogueira-Filho S.L.G.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2011
Wild animals have been a source of food and income through subsistence hunting by forest-dwelling people in Neotropical countries in spite of the fact that hunting appears to be unsustainable as it leads to the depletion of wild fauna. Laws in Brazil and other Latin American countries forbid hunting but allow the commercial use of captive-bred animals. Notwithstanding the fact that this is a controversial topic among conservationists, in this paper we propose that wildlife farming in the Neotropics can be an alternative to the over-hunting and deforestation that are carried out for the production of traditional food and pastures for livestock. This review sets out this proposal, and discusses the implications for tropical forest integrity and rural population dependency on forest resources. We discuss the ecological and economical advantages of wildlife farming and its constraints as a conservation tool, using collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) farming in the Amazon region as a model. Productivity levels may reach 19,000 times higher than those obtained from the management of peccaries from forests in the Amazon region. This can be achieved with an easily obtainable diet composed of forest fruits and locally available agricultural by-products. Therefore, establishing captive management programs for peccaries is an effective way of avoiding wild stock depletion, deforestation, and guaranteeing the livelihood of forest dwellers in the Neotropics. However, it is essential that governmental and/or non-governmental agencies be involved in providing subsides to establish peccary farms, provide technical assistance, and introducing peccary captive breeding centers to supply founder stock. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V.2011.
Mielke M.S.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz |
Schaffer B.,University of Florida
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2010
Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is a small tropical or subtropical shrub or tree native to South America and cultivated for different purposes in several areas of the world. It grows well in sun or partially shaded environments and is native to habitats that experience periodic soil waterlogging. The interactive effects of light intensity and soil flooding on the photosynthetic performance and growth of E. uniflora in containers were examined. Taking into account the ecological characteristics of the species, two hypotheses were tested: (a) E. uniflora seedlings subjected to soil flooding are able to maintain photosynthetic and growth rates similar to those of non-flooded seedlings and (b) photosynthetic and growth responses to soil flooding are influenced by the light environment. Seedlings pre-acclimated to full (≈44 mol m-2 day-1) and partial (≈12 mol m-2 day-1) sunlight for 55 days were subjected to soil flooding for 36 days. Photosynthetic light-response curves were analyzed for flooded and non-flooded plants two weeks after flooding and four weeks after soil drainage (unflooding plants). Plant dry weight was analyzed at the end of soil flooding period and 35 days after soil drainage. Soil flooding negatively affected the gross light-saturated photosynthetic rate expressed on an area and dry weight basis (Amax-area and Amax-weight, respectively), stomatal conductance of water vapor (gssat), and plant growth and survival. Four weeks after soil drainage, flooding also significantly reduced the apparent quantum yield (α). There were no significant interactions between flooding and light intensity on plant survival and leaf gas exchange variables, with the exception of the intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs) four weeks after soil drainage. The effects of flooding on plant dry weight and A/gs were more pronounced in full sun than in partial sunlight and the harmful effects of soil flooding on leaf gas exchange and growth persisted after soil drainage. Changes in A/gs and α four weeks after soil drainage were interpreted as evidence of non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis. E. uniflora is moderately sensitive to soil flooding and the effects of flooding on changes in photosynthetic performance and growth of plants are partially influenced by the light environment. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Souza M.M.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2010
Cytological preparations for the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique require cytoplasm-free metaphases, with well-spread chromosomes, for the localization of DNA sequences and chromosome mapping. We tested various procedures for FISH analysis of Passiflora cacaoensis, P. gardneri and hybrid F progeny of P. gardneri x P. gibertii. Two treatments with four enzymes and three incubation times were compared. The material was treated with 1.0 M HCl before enzymatic digestion. The following criteria were used to determine the quality of the metaphases: a) lack or presence of cytoplasm; b) well-spread chromosomes or with overlap; c) complete or incomplete chromosome number (2n). The enzyme Pectinex(®) SP ULTRA gave the best performance, with the shortest incubation time. The best results were observed after 30 min of incubation; more than 70% of the metaphases did not have large amounts of cytoplasm or overlapping chromosomes, and about 75% maintained the chromosome number. FISH was carried out using a 45S rDNA probe (pTa71) labeled with biotin and detected with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Sites with strong staining and without nonspecific signals were observed. Our methodological adaptations allowed the preparation of metaphase slides of high quality for the FISH technique, with less time required for the preparation of samples.
dos Santos A.C.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012
Currently, the effect of crude oil on ammonia-oxidizing bacterium communities from mangrove sediments is little understood. We studied the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in mangrove microcosm experiments using mangrove sediments contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% crude oil as well as non-contaminated control and landfarm soil from near an oil refinery in Camamu Bay in Bahia, Brazil. The evolution of CO(2) production in all crude oil-contaminated microcosms showed potential for mineralization. Cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis-derived samples generated with primers for gene amoA, which encodes the functional enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, showed differences in the sample contaminated with 5% compared to the other samples. Principal component analysis showed divergence of the non-contaminated samples from the 5% crude oil-contaminated sediment. A Venn diagram generated from the banding pattern of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to look for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in common. Eight OTUs were found in non-contaminated sediments and in samples contaminated with 0.5, 1, or 2% crude oil. A Jaccard similarity index of 50% was found for samples contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2% crude oil. This is the first study that focuses on the impact of crude oil on the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium community in mangrove sediments from Camamu Bay.
Gomes L.M.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012
Sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth) is a tree of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It is a flowering ornamental tree widely planted throughout Brazil and indicated for restoration of degraded areas. We examined protein profile changes in leaves of seedlings of C. peltophoroides grown in nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions, after exposure to cadmium (Cd; 32 mg/L). A two-dimensional gel was used to analyze proteins expressed in response to stress 24 and 72 h after initiation of treatment with Cd. Various protein bands were identified that were related to stress response and/or metabolic adjustments, including proteins involved with resistance to stress, including detoxification, degradation, antioxidant, transport, signal transduction, photosynthesis, electron transport, biosynthesis reactions, and transcription regulation. After 24 h of Cd exposure, the genes of most of these proteins were upregulated. These putative proteins were associated with resistance to stress, including heat shock proteins, heat stress transcriptional factor and other transcriptional factors, aquaporins, glutathione transferase and choline monooxygenase. Most of the putative proteins observed after 72 h of exposure to Cd were downregulated. They were mainly photosynthetic process proteins, such as NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase, photosystem I assembly, and photosystem II CP47 chlorophyll apoprotein. There were also proteins involved with degradation, biosynthesis and antioxidant activity, such as ATP-dependent Clp protease, methylthioribose-1-phosphate and glutathione peroxidase 2. Based on preliminary proteomic analysis, we conclude that proteins related to photosynthetic activity are inhibited, decreasing plant performance under stress conditions and that several proteins related to defense mechanisms are activated, inducing the plant defense response.
Alves E.O.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012
We investigated seven distance measures in a set of observations of physicochemical variables of mango (Mangifera indica) submitted to multivariate analyses (distance, projection and grouping). To estimate the distance measurements, five mango progeny (total of 25 genotypes) were analyzed, using six fruit physicochemical descriptors (fruit weight, equatorial diameter, longitudinal diameter, total soluble solids in °Brix, total titratable acidity, and pH). The distance measurements were compared by the Spearman correlation test, projection in two-dimensional space and grouping efficiency. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the seven distance measurements were, except for the Mahalanobis' generalized distance (0.41 ≤ rs ≤ 0.63), high and significant (rs ≥ 0.91; P < 0.001). Regardless of the origin of the distance matrix, the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean grouping method proved to be the most adequate. The various distance measurements and grouping methods gave different values for distortion (-116.5 ≤ D ≤ 74.5), cophenetic correlation (0.26 ≤ rc ≤ 0.76) and stress (-1.9 ≤ S ≤ 58.9). Choice of distance measurement and analysis methods influence the.
Carvalho F.S.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2011
We used PCR to test various protocols and define a technique for DNA extraction directly from chicken-shed stool samples for the identification of Eimeria species that parasitize birds. It was possible to extract and amplify DNA of seven Eimeria species from field stool samples, using both protocols tested; extractions made with phenol/chloroform protocols gave the best results. The primers were specific and sensitive, allowing amplification of samples containing as few as 20 oocysts, both in individual and in a multiplex PCR. Individualized PCR with the phenol/chloroform DNA extraction protocol detected a larger number of Eimeria species. Molecular diagnosis was found to be practical and precise, and can be used for monitoring and epidemiological studies of Eimeria.
Barbosa P.C.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz
Drug testing and analysis | Year: 2012
Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Health, Environment and territory: A necessary discussion in health training, Saúde, Meio ambiente e território: Uma discussão necessária na formação em saúde [Saúde, Meio ambiente e território: Uma discussão necessária na formação em saúde]
de Souza C.L.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2014
Environmental degradation has been affecting ecosystems and causing the imbalance of various life forms that comprise natural diversity, and consequently produce risks and hazards to public health. Therefore, an attempt was made to examine interdisciplinary health and environmental health in public undergraduate institutions of higher education involving the application of the concept of territory. It adopted qualitative research with a descriptive and exploratory approach to undergraduate courses in health of the seventeen undergraduate programs in health in the four state universities of the State of Bahia. It was detected that despite curriculum changes in undergraduate courses in health over the past few years, the model of professional training has focused on technical and non-preventive practices, which highlights a gap in the relationship between health/environment and the protection of life. This causes the undergraduate courses in health to minimize the association between diseases, health and environmental issues, taking into account that such issues should be addressed as a cross-sectional theme in undergraduate health, emphasizing the need for more discussion and better incorporation of environmental issues in the healthcare field. © 2014, Associacao Brasileira de Pos - Graduacao em Saude Coletiva. All rights Reserved.
Kandus A.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz |
Kunze K.E.,University of Salamanca |
Tsagas C.G.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Physics Reports | Year: 2011
Magnetic fields appear everywhere in the universe. From stars and galaxies, all the way to galaxy clusters and remote protogalactic clouds, magnetic fields of considerable strength and size have been repeatedly observed. Despite their widespread presence, however, the origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still a mystery. The galactic dynamo is believed capable of amplifying weak magnetic seeds to strengths like those measured in ours and other galaxies. But the question is where do these seed fields come from? Are they a product of late, post-recombination, physics or are they truly cosmological in origin? The idea of primordial magnetism is attractive because it makes the large-scale magnetic fields, especially those found in early protogalactic systems, easier to explain. As a result, a host of different scenarios have appeared in the literature. Nevertheless, early magnetogenesis is not problem-free, with a number of issues remaining open and a matter of debate. We review the question of the origin of primordial magnetic fields and consider the limits set on their strength by the current observational data. The various mechanisms of pre-recombination magnetogenesis are presented and their advantages and shortcomings are debated. We consider both classical and quantum scenarios, that operate within as well as outside the standard model, and also discuss how future observations could be used to decide whether the large-scale magnetic fields we see in the universe today are truly primordial or not. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.