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Fernando de Noronha (Distrito Estadual), Brazil

Musco N.,University of Naples Federico II | Calabro S.,University of Naples Federico II | Infascelli F.,University of Naples Federico II | Tudisco R.,University of Naples Federico II | And 5 more authors.
Italian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

Seven feeds were tested in vitro using faecal inoculum from pigs. Sugar beet pulp, wheat bran, soybean hulls, grapecake, glutamic beet pulp, citrus by-product and fructo-oligo - saccharides (FOS) were fermented for 96 h. Cumulative gas production was measured as indicator of the fermentation kinetics. At the end of incubation organic matter disappearance and fermentation end-products (short-chain fatty acids and NH3) were also measured. The gas production profiles were fitted with a multiphasic model. Significant differences were detected between grapecake and FOS: the very low gas production for the first one was probably due to the high lignin and tannins contents of this by-product, while the higher organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV) and organic matter disappearance (OMD) values for FOS were due to the high soluble fibre proportion. Soybean hulls and citrus by-product, showed similar values of degradability and gas production and were characterised by different fermentation profiles. Grapecake showed the lower fermentation, while citrus by-product was characterized high gas and short-chain fatty acids production. These characteristics could be particularly useful to optimize the caecum-colon fermentation in order to obtain a high butyrate acid production. © N. Musco et al. 2015. Source

Fracasso A.F.,Federal University of Parana | Frizon C.N.T.,Federal University of Parana | Jorge L.M.M.,University Estadual Of Maringaparana | Jorge R.M.M.,Federal University of Parana
Acta Scientiarum - Technology | Year: 2015

The kinetic and experimental analyses of the hydration process of transgenic soybeans (BRS 225 RR) are provided. The importance of the hydration process consists of the grain texture modifications which favor grinding and extraction of soybeans. The soaking isotherms were obtained for four different temperatures. Results showed that temperature affected transgenic soybeans´ hydration rate and time. Moisture content d.b. of the soybeans increased from 0.12 ± 0.01 kg kg-1 to 1.45 ± 0.19 kg kg-1 during 270 min. of process. Two models were used to fit the kinetic curves: an empirical model developed by Peleg (1988) and a phenomenological one, proposed by Omoto et al. (2009). The two models adequately represented the hydration kinetics. Peleg model was applied to the experimental data and the corresponding parameters were obtained and correlated to temperature. The model by Omoto et al. (2009) showed a better statistical fitting. Although Ks was affected by temperature (Ks = 0.38079 exp (-2289.3 T-1)), the equilibrium concentration remained practically unchanged. © 2014, Eduem - Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringa. All rights reserved. Source

Oliveira Neto A.M.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | Constantin J.,University Estadual Of Maringaparana | Oliveira R.S.,University Estadual Of Maringaparana | Barroso A.L.L.,University Of Rio Verdegoias | And 3 more authors.
Planta Daninha | Year: 2015

The aim of this work was to evaluate the selectivity of fomesafen alone or in a tank mixture with other preemergent herbicides, with or without S-metolachlor application in early postemergence in cotton plant, cultivar DP 555 BG RR(r). The design utilized was a randomized complete block, organized in a split-plot arrangement, with four replications. For that, 24 herbicides were evaluated with fomesafen (0.45 and 0.625 kg ha-1), prometryn (1.25 kg ha-1), diuron (1.25 kg ha-1), trifluralin (1.8 kg ha-1), and S-metolachlor (0.77 kg ha-1), applied as preemergent, with or without S-metolachlor (0.77 kg ha-1) applied in early postemergence. The variables evaluated were: phytotoxicity, insertion height of the first reproductive branch, plant height, stand, number of reproductive branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, bolls weight, and productivity of cotton seed. Fomesafen alone or in a tank mixture with preemergent prometryn, diuron, trifluralin and S-metolachlor was selective to cotton plant. Preemergent fomesafen isolated application followed by the application of S-metolachlor in early postemergence was also selective. However, on average, preemergent tank mixtures applied in association with preemergent S-metolachlor early application was not selective to cotton crop. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira da Ciencia das Plantas Daninha. All rights reserved. Source

Fiori L.F.,University Estadual Of Maringaparana | Cionek V.M.,University Estadual Of Maringaparana | Sacramento P.A.,University Estadual Of Maringaparana | Benedito E.,State University of Maringa
Revista Arvore | Year: 2016

Considering the importance of the riparian vegetation leaves as an energetic source to first order streams, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the leaf biomass contribution to the system and its temporal dynamics. With this purpose, monthly samples from July 2008 to June 2009 were collected using four sampling devices installed in three streams, in order to collect the vertical, lateral and terrestrial loads, and the benthic stock. We tested the following hypothesis: (1) leaf biomass input is higher after hydric stress periods; and (2) benthic stock biomass increase with higher loads from vertical and lateral entrances. Leaves represented 71.9% (on average) of all sampled allochthonous matter, with seasonal significant variation along the studied year. Peaks of leaf input were registered in September-October, after an increase in rainfall, and also in January, after a decrease in rainfall. Leaf input was higher in the lateral load. © 2016, Sociedade de Investigacoes Florestais. All rights reserved. Source

Bichoff A.,University Estadual Of Maringaparana | Osorio N.C.,University Estadual Of Maringaparana | Dunck B.,University Estadual Of Maringaparana | Rodrigues L.,University Estadual Of Maringaparana
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2016

Drought events will become more frequent due the climate change. In floodplains, periphytic algae are responsible for part of the primary production, are the principal source of organic carbon deposition, play an important role in mineralization and nutrient cycling, and are the base of the food web for many organisms. As algae distribution in aquatic environments is a strong indicator of physical and chemical conditions of the sites, we aimed to determine the structure of periphytic algae in lentic and lotic environments during drought conditions and to uncover the main local abiotic factors in community structuring. We hypothesized diatoms would be more frequent than green algae and desmids at both sites, due to their resistance characteristics, and that higher periphyton algal richness, density and diversity would occur in the lake due to the greater availability of nutrients and the absence of flow. The study was carried out in the Finado Raimundo lake and the Ivinhema river in the Upper Paraná river floodplain during the low water period of 2011. Petioles of the aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth were used as a substrate for periphytic algae. We found a total of 171 species, 104 species in the lake and 80 in the river. Diatoms were predominant at both sites due to their strategic traits, and between sites, there were different patterns in the periphytic algal community structure, owing to the distinctive physical and chemical characteristics of the lake and the river. Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kützing) Czarnecki and Nitzschia palea (Kützing) W. Smith were the most abundant species in both environments. Our results showed patterns of periphytic algae in a floodplain during drought conditions, which will assist in understanding their structuring during future drought scenarios. © 2016, Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP. All rights reserved. Source

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